Skip to content
Unofficial Unicorn Mirror.
Ruby Shell Ragel in Ruby Host C Makefile
Latest commit 735d0f8 Eric Wong unicorn 5.1.0.pre1 - rack is optional, again
The big change is rack is not required (but still recommended).
Applications are expected to depend on rack on their own so they can
specify the version of rack they prefer without unicorn pulling
in a newer, potentially incompatible version.

unicorn will always attempt to work with multiple versions of rack
as practical.

The HTTP parser also switched to using the TypedData C-API for
extra type safety and memory usage accounting support in the
'objspace' extension.

Thanks to Adam Duke to bringing the rack change to our attention
and Aaron Patterson for helping with the matter.

There might be more documentation-related changes before 5.1.0
final.  I am considering dropping pandoc from manpage generation
and relying on pod2man (from Perl) because it has a wider install

5 changes since v5.0.1:

      http: TypedData C-API conversion
      various documentation updates
      doc: bump olddoc to ~> 1.2 for extra NNTP URL
      rack is optional at runtime, required for dev
      doc update for ClientShutdown exceptions class
Failed to load latest commit information.
Documentation various documentation updates
archive add slrnpull.conf example for gmane archives
bin favor more string literals for cold call sites
examples examples: add systemd socket and service files
ext/unicorn_http http: TypedData C-API conversion
lib doc update for ClientShutdown exceptions class
t ensure body is closed during hijack
test http: TypedData C-API conversion
.CHANGELOG.old Remove Echoe and roll our own packaging/release...
.document switch docs + website to olddoc
.gitattributes add .gitattributes for Ruby method detection
.gitignore switch docs + website to olddoc
.mailmap Add .mailmap file for "git shortlog" and other tools
.olddoc.yml doc: bump olddoc to ~> 1.2 for extra NNTP URL
Application_Timeouts doc: remove references to old servers
COPYING add GPLv3 option to the license
DESIGN doc: DESIGN: update old statements.
FAQ FAQ: reorder bit on Rack 1.1.x and Rails 2.3.x
GIT-VERSION-GEN unicorn 5.1.0.pre1 - rack is optional, again
GNUmakefile www: install NEWS.atom.xml properly
HACKING various documentation updates
ISSUES doc updates
KNOWN_ISSUES doc: remove references to old servers
LICENSE license: allow all future versions of the GNU GPL
Links doc updates
PHILOSOPHY doc: remove references to old servers
README various documentation updates
Rakefile remove RubyForge and Freecode references
SIGNALS doc: update some invalid URLs
Sandbox doc: remove references to old servers
TODO TODO: remove scalability to >= 1024 workers item
TUNING doc: remove references to old servers
setup.rb "encoding: binary" comments for all sources (1.9)
unicorn.gemspec rack is optional at runtime, required for dev


= unicorn: Rack HTTP server for fast clients and Unix

unicorn is an HTTP server for Rack applications designed to only serve
fast clients on low-latency, high-bandwidth connections and take
advantage of features in Unix/Unix-like kernels.  Slow clients should
only be served by placing a reverse proxy capable of fully buffering
both the the request and response in between unicorn and slow clients.

== Features

* Designed for Rack, Unix, fast clients, and ease-of-debugging.  We
  cut out everything that is better supported by the operating system,
  {nginx}[] or {Rack}[].

* Compatible with Ruby 1.9.3 and later.
  unicorn 4.x remains supported for Ruby 1.8 users.

* Process management: unicorn will reap and restart workers that
  die from broken apps.  There is no need to manage multiple processes
  or ports yourself.  unicorn can spawn and manage any number of
  worker processes you choose to scale to your backend.

* Load balancing is done entirely by the operating system kernel.
  Requests never pile up behind a busy worker process.

* Does not care if your application is thread-safe or not, workers
  all run within their own isolated address space and only serve one
  client at a time for maximum robustness.

* Supports all Rack applications, along with pre-Rack versions of
  Ruby on Rails via a Rack wrapper.

* Builtin reopening of all log files in your application via
  USR1 signal.  This allows logrotate to rotate files atomically and
  quickly via rename instead of the racy and slow copytruncate method.
  unicorn also takes steps to ensure multi-line log entries from one
  request all stay within the same file.

* nginx-style binary upgrades without losing connections.
  You can upgrade unicorn, your entire application, libraries
  and even your Ruby interpreter without dropping clients.

* before_fork and after_fork hooks in case your application
  has special needs when dealing with forked processes.  These
  should not be needed when the "preload_app" directive is
  false (the default).

* Can be used with copy-on-write-friendly memory management
  to save memory (by setting "preload_app" to true).

* Able to listen on multiple interfaces including UNIX sockets,
  each worker process can also bind to a private port via the
  after_fork hook for easy debugging.

* Simple and easy Ruby DSL for configuration.

* Decodes chunked transfers on-the-fly, thus allowing upload progress
  notification to be implemented as well as being able to tunnel
  arbitrary stream-based protocols over HTTP.

== License

unicorn is copyright 2009-2016 by all contributors (see logs in git).
It is based on Mongrel 1.1.5.
Mongrel is copyright 2007 Zed A. Shaw and contributors.

unicorn is licensed under (your choice) of the GPLv2 or later
(GPLv3+ preferred), or Ruby (1.8)-specific terms.
See the included LICENSE file for details.

unicorn is 100% Free Software (including all development tools used).

== Install

The library consists of a C extension so you'll need a C compiler
and Ruby development libraries/headers.

You may install it via RubyGems on

  gem install unicorn

You can get the latest source via git from the following locations
(these versions may not be stable):

  git:// (mirror)

You may browse the code from the web:

* (gitweb)

See the HACKING guide on how to contribute and build prerelease gems
from git.

== Usage

=== Rack (including Rails 3+) applications

In APP_ROOT, run:


unicorn will bind to all interfaces on TCP port 8080 by default.
You may use the +--listen/-l+ switch to bind to a different
address:port or a UNIX socket.

=== Configuration File(s)

unicorn will look for the file used by rackup in APP_ROOT.

For deployments, it can use a config file for unicorn-specific options
specified by the +--config-file/-c+ command-line switch.  See
Unicorn::Configurator for the syntax of the unicorn-specific options.
The default settings are designed for maximum out-of-the-box
compatibility with existing applications.

Most command-line options for other Rack applications (above) are also
supported.  Run `unicorn -h` to see command-line options.

== Disclaimer

There is NO WARRANTY whatsoever if anything goes wrong, but
{let us know}[link:ISSUES.html] and we'll try our best to fix it.

unicorn is designed to only serve fast clients either on the local host
or a fast LAN.  See the PHILOSOPHY and DESIGN documents for more details
regarding this.

== Contact

All feedback (bug reports, user/development dicussion, patches, pull
requests) go to the mailing list/newsgroup.  See the ISSUES document for
information on the {mailing list}[].

The mailing list is archived at
Read-only NNTP access is available at:
nntp:// and

For the latest on unicorn releases, you may also finger us at or check our NEWS page (and subscribe to our Atom
Something went wrong with that request. Please try again.