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CLI tool for spawning and running containers according to the OCI specification
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Radostin Stoyanov (1):
  criu: Ensure other users cannot read c/r files

LGTMs: @crosbymichael @cyphar
Closes #2141
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contrib Update bash completion for v1.0.0 release Jun 25, 2019
docs Add 'org.criu.config' annotation documentation Jan 15, 2019
libcontainer merge branch 'pr-2141' Dec 6, 2019
man man: fix man-pages Aug 6, 2019
script Modify in accordance with Moby Project updates Nov 30, 2018
tests Reformat vendor.conf and pin all deps by git-sha Sep 5, 2019
types Expose network interfaces via runc events Dec 5, 2019
vendor cgroup2: port over eBPF device controller from crun Oct 31, 2019
.gitignore travis: test cross compilation Jun 16, 2018
.pullapprove.yml Disallow self-LGTMs Jun 1, 2016
.travis.yml .travis.yml: add Fedora 31 vagrant box (for cgroup2) Oct 31, 2019 *: add information about security mailing list Dec 3, 2016
Dockerfile Merge pull request #2028 from thaJeztah/bump_golang_versions Sep 5, 2019
LICENSE Initial commit of runc binary Jun 22, 2015
MAINTAINERS MAINTAINERS: remove @vmarmol Nov 24, 2018 trailing punctuation in header Dec 2, 2016
Makefile Makefile: allow overriding `docker` command Dec 3, 2019
NOTICE Move libcontainer documenation to root of repo Jun 26, 2015 Move libcontainer documenation to root of repo Jun 26, 2015 Merge pull request #1929 from kkallday/patch-1 Oct 23, 2019 SECURITY: Add Security Policy Oct 1, 2019
VERSION VERSION: back to development Sep 30, 2019
checkpoint.go Merge pull request #1911 from theSuess/linter-fixes Nov 13, 2018
create.go Prepare startContainer() to have more action May 1, 2017
delete.go various cleanups to address linter issues Oct 13, 2018
events.go Expose network interfaces via runc events Dec 5, 2019
exec.go Improve nsexec logging Apr 22, 2019
init.go Improve nsexec logging Apr 22, 2019
kill.go various cleanups to address linter issues Oct 13, 2018
list.go list: stop casting unknown UIDs to their unicode values Jul 11, 2017
main.go main: not reopen /dev/stderr May 14, 2019
notify_socket.go Change the permissions of the notify listener socket to rwx for everyone May 7, 2019
pause.go Fix some typos Dec 9, 2018
ps.go Disable rootless mode except RootlessCgMgr when executed as the root … Sep 7, 2018
restore.go criu image path permission error in rootless checkpoint Mar 11, 2019
rlimit_linux.go error strings should not be capitalized or end with punctuation Dec 1, 2016
rootless_linux.go rootless: fix potential panic in shouldUseRootlessCgroupManager Nov 10, 2018
run.go Prepare startContainer() to have more action May 1, 2017
signalmap.go Stop using unix.SIGUNUSED which has been removed from Jun 17, 2018
signalmap_mipsx.go Add support for mips/mips64 Jun 2, 2017
signals.go various cleanups to address linter issues Oct 13, 2018
spec.go Merge pull request #1911 from theSuess/linter-fixes Nov 13, 2018
start.go Only allow single container operation Mar 8, 2017
state.go Check args numbers before application start Nov 29, 2016
tty.go tty: clean up epollConsole closing Sep 21, 2018
update.go libcontainer: intelrdt: add update command support for Intel RDT/MBA Oct 16, 2018
utils.go main: support rootless mode in userns May 10, 2018
utils_linux.go Merge pull request #2038 from imxyb/defer-destroy May 7, 2019
vendor.conf cgroup2: port over eBPF device controller from crun Oct 31, 2019


Build Status Go Report Card GoDoc


runc is a CLI tool for spawning and running containers according to the OCI specification.


runc depends on and tracks the runtime-spec repository. We will try to make sure that runc and the OCI specification major versions stay in lockstep. This means that runc 1.0.0 should implement the 1.0 version of the specification.

You can find official releases of runc on the release page.

Currently, the following features are not considered to be production-ready:

  • Support for cgroup v2


The reporting process and disclosure communications are outlined in /org/security.


runc currently supports the Linux platform with various architecture support. It must be built with Go version 1.6 or higher in order for some features to function properly.

In order to enable seccomp support you will need to install libseccomp on your platform.

e.g. libseccomp-devel for CentOS, or libseccomp-dev for Ubuntu

Otherwise, if you do not want to build runc with seccomp support you can add BUILDTAGS="" when running make.

# create a '' in your GOPATH/src
git clone
cd runc

sudo make install

You can also use go get to install to your GOPATH, assuming that you have a parent folder already created under src:

go get
cd $GOPATH/src/
sudo make install

runc will be installed to /usr/local/sbin/runc on your system.

Build Tags

runc supports optional build tags for compiling support of various features. To add build tags to the make option the BUILDTAGS variable must be set.

make BUILDTAGS='seccomp apparmor'
Build Tag Feature Dependency
seccomp Syscall filtering libseccomp
selinux selinux process and mount labeling
apparmor apparmor profile support
ambient ambient capability support kernel 4.3
nokmem disable kernel memory account

Running the test suite

runc currently supports running its test suite via Docker. To run the suite just type make test.

make test

There are additional make targets for running the tests outside of a container but this is not recommended as the tests are written with the expectation that they can write and remove anywhere.

You can run a specific test case by setting the TESTFLAGS variable.

# make test TESTFLAGS="-run=SomeTestFunction"

You can run a specific integration test by setting the TESTPATH variable.

# make test TESTPATH="/checkpoint.bats"

You can run a test in your proxy environment by setting DOCKER_BUILD_PROXY and DOCKER_RUN_PROXY variables.

# make test DOCKER_BUILD_PROXY="--build-arg HTTP_PROXY=http://yourproxy/" DOCKER_RUN_PROXY="-e HTTP_PROXY=http://yourproxy/"

Dependencies Management

runc uses vndr for dependencies management. Please refer to vndr for how to add or update new dependencies.

Using runc

Creating an OCI Bundle

In order to use runc you must have your container in the format of an OCI bundle. If you have Docker installed you can use its export method to acquire a root filesystem from an existing Docker container.

# create the top most bundle directory
mkdir /mycontainer
cd /mycontainer

# create the rootfs directory
mkdir rootfs

# export busybox via Docker into the rootfs directory
docker export $(docker create busybox) | tar -C rootfs -xvf -

After a root filesystem is populated you just generate a spec in the format of a config.json file inside your bundle. runc provides a spec command to generate a base template spec that you are then able to edit. To find features and documentation for fields in the spec please refer to the specs repository.

runc spec

Running Containers

Assuming you have an OCI bundle from the previous step you can execute the container in two different ways.

The first way is to use the convenience command run that will handle creating, starting, and deleting the container after it exits.

# run as root
cd /mycontainer
runc run mycontainerid

If you used the unmodified runc spec template this should give you a sh session inside the container.

The second way to start a container is using the specs lifecycle operations. This gives you more power over how the container is created and managed while it is running. This will also launch the container in the background so you will have to edit the config.json to remove the terminal setting for the simple examples here. Your process field in the config.json should look like this below with "terminal": false and "args": ["sleep", "5"].

        "process": {
                "terminal": false,
                "user": {
                        "uid": 0,
                        "gid": 0
                "args": [
                        "sleep", "5"
                "env": [
                "cwd": "/",
                "capabilities": {
                        "bounding": [
                        "effective": [
                        "inheritable": [
                        "permitted": [
                        "ambient": [
                "rlimits": [
                                "type": "RLIMIT_NOFILE",
                                "hard": 1024,
                                "soft": 1024
                "noNewPrivileges": true

Now we can go through the lifecycle operations in your shell.

# run as root
cd /mycontainer
runc create mycontainerid

# view the container is created and in the "created" state
runc list

# start the process inside the container
runc start mycontainerid

# after 5 seconds view that the container has exited and is now in the stopped state
runc list

# now delete the container
runc delete mycontainerid

This allows higher level systems to augment the containers creation logic with setup of various settings after the container is created and/or before it is deleted. For example, the container's network stack is commonly set up after create but before start.

Rootless containers

runc has the ability to run containers without root privileges. This is called rootless. You need to pass some parameters to runc in order to run rootless containers. See below and compare with the previous version.

Note: In order to use this feature, "User Namespaces" must be compiled and enabled in your kernel. There are various ways to do this depending on your distribution:

  • Confirm CONFIG_USER_NS=y is set in your kernel configuration (normally found in /proc/config.gz)
  • Arch/Debian: echo 1 > /proc/sys/kernel/unprivileged_userns_clone
  • RHEL/CentOS 7: echo 28633 > /proc/sys/user/max_user_namespaces

Run the following commands as an ordinary user:

# Same as the first example
mkdir ~/mycontainer
cd ~/mycontainer
mkdir rootfs
docker export $(docker create busybox) | tar -C rootfs -xvf -

# The --rootless parameter instructs runc spec to generate a configuration for a rootless container, which will allow you to run the container as a non-root user.
runc spec --rootless

# The --root parameter tells runc where to store the container state. It must be writable by the user.
runc --root /tmp/runc run mycontainerid


runc can be used with process supervisors and init systems to ensure that containers are restarted when they exit. An example systemd unit file looks something like this.

Description=Start My Container

ExecStart=/usr/local/sbin/runc run -d --pid-file /run/ mycontainerid
ExecStopPost=/usr/local/sbin/runc delete mycontainerid



The code and docs are released under the Apache 2.0 license.

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