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Latest commit 4be034e Feb 28, 2017 @bors bors Auto merge of #38165 - Yamakaky:better-backtrace, r=petrochenkov
Improve backtrace formating while panicking.

Fixes #37783.


- Fix alignment of file paths for better readability
- `RUST_BACKTRACE=full` prints all the informations (current behaviour)
- `RUST_BACKTRACE=(short|yes)` is the default and does:
  - Skip irrelevant frames at the beginning and the end
  - Remove function address
  - Remove the current directory from the absolute paths
  - Remove `::hfabe6541873` at the end of the symbols
- `RUST_BACKTRACE=(0|no)` disables the backtrace.
- `RUST_BACKTRACE=<everything else>` is equivalent to `short` for
  backward compatibility.
- doc
- More uniform printing across platforms.

Removed, TODO in a new PR:

- Remove path prefix for libraries and libstd

Example of short backtrace:
fn fail() {

fn main() {
    let closure = || fail();
thread 'main' panicked at 'explicit panic', t.rs:2
Some details are omitted, run with `RUST_BACKTRACE=full` for a verbose backtrace.
stack backtrace:
   0: t::fail
            at ./t.rs:2
   1: t::main::{{closure}}
            at ./t.rs:6
   2: t::main
            at ./t.rs:7
thread 'main' panicked at 'This function never returns!', t.rs:2
stack backtrace:
   0:     0x558ddf666478 - std::sys:👿:backtrace::tracing:👿:unwind_backtrace::hec84c9dd8389cc5d
                               at /home/yamakaky/dev/rust/rust/src/libstd/sys/unix/backtrace/tracing/gcc_s.rs:49
   1:     0x558ddf65d90e - std::sys_common::backtrace::_print::hfa25f8b31f4b4353
                               at /home/yamakaky/dev/rust/rust/src/libstd/sys_common/backtrace.rs:71
   2:     0x558ddf65cb5e - std::sys_common::backtrace::print::h9b711e11ac3ba805
                               at /home/yamakaky/dev/rust/rust/src/libstd/sys_common/backtrace.rs:60
   3:     0x558ddf66796e - std::panicking::default_hook::{{closure}}::h736d216e74748044
                               at /home/yamakaky/dev/rust/rust/src/libstd/panicking.rs:355
   4:     0x558ddf66743c - std::panicking::default_hook::h16baff397e46ea10
                               at /home/yamakaky/dev/rust/rust/src/libstd/panicking.rs:371
   5:     0x558ddf6682bc - std::panicking::rust_panic_with_hook::h6d5a9bb4eca42c80
                               at /home/yamakaky/dev/rust/rust/src/libstd/panicking.rs:559
   6:     0x558ddf64ea93 - std::panicking::begin_panic::h17dc549df2f10b99
                               at /home/yamakaky/dev/rust/rust/src/libstd/panicking.rs:521
   7:     0x558ddf64ec42 - t::diverges::he6bc43fc925905f5
                               at /tmp/p/t.rs:2
   8:     0x558ddf64ec5a - t::main::h0ffc20356b8a69c0
                               at /tmp/p/t.rs:6
   9:     0x558ddf6687f5 - core::ops::FnOnce::call_once::hce41f19c0db56f93
  10:     0x558ddf667cde - std::panicking::try::do_call::hd4c8c97efb4291df
                               at /home/yamakaky/dev/rust/rust/src/libstd/panicking.rs:464
  11:     0x558ddf698d77 - __rust_try
  12:     0x558ddf698c57 - __rust_maybe_catch_panic
                               at /home/yamakaky/dev/rust/rust/src/libpanic_unwind/lib.rs:98
  13:     0x558ddf667adb - std::panicking::try::h2c56ed2a59ec1d12
                               at /home/yamakaky/dev/rust/rust/src/libstd/panicking.rs:440
  14:     0x558ddf66cc9a - std::panic::catch_unwind::h390834e0251cc9af
                               at /home/yamakaky/dev/rust/rust/src/libstd/panic.rs:361
  15:     0x558ddf6809ee - std::rt::lang_start::hb73087428e233982
                               at /home/yamakaky/dev/rust/rust/src/libstd/rt.rs:57
  16:     0x558ddf64ec92 - main
  17:     0x7fecb869e290 - __libc_start_main
  18:     0x558ddf64e8b9 - _start
  19:                0x0 - <unknown>


The Rust Programming Language

This is the main source code repository for Rust. It contains the compiler, standard library, and documentation.

Quick Start

Read "Installing Rust" from The Book.

Building from Source

  1. Make sure you have installed the dependencies:

    • g++ 4.7 or later or clang++ 3.x
    • python 2.7 (but not 3.x)
    • GNU make 3.81 or later
    • cmake 3.4.3 or later
    • curl
    • git
  2. Clone the source with git:

    $ git clone https://github.com/rust-lang/rust.git
    $ cd rust
  3. Build and install:

    $ ./configure
    $ make && sudo make install

    Note: Install locations can be adjusted by passing a --prefix argument to configure. Various other options are also supported – pass --help for more information on them.

    When complete, sudo make install will place several programs into /usr/local/bin: rustc, the Rust compiler, and rustdoc, the API-documentation tool. This install does not include Cargo, Rust's package manager, which you may also want to build.

Building on Windows

There are two prominent ABIs in use on Windows: the native (MSVC) ABI used by Visual Studio, and the GNU ABI used by the GCC toolchain. Which version of Rust you need depends largely on what C/C++ libraries you want to interoperate with: for interop with software produced by Visual Studio use the MSVC build of Rust; for interop with GNU software built using the MinGW/MSYS2 toolchain use the GNU build.


MSYS2 can be used to easily build Rust on Windows:

  1. Grab the latest MSYS2 installer and go through the installer.

  2. Run mingw32_shell.bat or mingw64_shell.bat from wherever you installed MSYS2 (i.e. C:\msys64), depending on whether you want 32-bit or 64-bit Rust. (As of the latest version of MSYS2 you have to run msys2_shell.cmd -mingw32 or msys2_shell.cmd -mingw64 from the command line instead)

  3. From this terminal, install the required tools:

    # Update package mirrors (may be needed if you have a fresh install of MSYS2)
    $ pacman -Sy pacman-mirrors
    # Install build tools needed for Rust. If you're building a 32-bit compiler,
    # then replace "x86_64" below with "i686". If you've already got git, python,
    # or CMake installed and in PATH you can remove them from this list. Note
    # that it is important that you do **not** use the 'python2' and 'cmake'
    # packages from the 'msys2' subsystem. The build has historically been known
    # to fail with these packages.
    $ pacman -S git \
               make \
               diffutils \
               tar \
               mingw-w64-x86_64-python2 \
               mingw-w64-x86_64-cmake \
  4. Navigate to Rust's source code (or clone it), then configure and build it:

    $ ./configure
    $ make && make install


MSVC builds of Rust additionally require an installation of Visual Studio 2013 (or later) so rustc can use its linker. Make sure to check the “C++ tools” option.

With these dependencies installed, you can build the compiler in a cmd.exe shell with:

> python x.py build

If you're running inside of an msys shell, however, you can run:

$ ./configure --build=x86_64-pc-windows-msvc
$ make && make install

Currently building Rust only works with some known versions of Visual Studio. If you have a more recent version installed the build system doesn't understand then you may need to force rustbuild to use an older version. This can be done by manually calling the appropriate vcvars file before running the bootstrap.

CALL "C:\Program Files (x86)\Microsoft Visual Studio 14.0\VC\bin\amd64\vcvars64.bat"
python x.py build

Building Documentation

If you’d like to build the documentation, it’s almost the same:

$ ./configure
$ make docs

The generated documentation will appear in a top-level doc directory, created by the make rule.


Since the Rust compiler is written in Rust, it must be built by a precompiled "snapshot" version of itself (made in an earlier state of development). As such, source builds require a connection to the Internet, to fetch snapshots, and an OS that can execute the available snapshot binaries.

Snapshot binaries are currently built and tested on several platforms:

Platform / Architecture x86 x86_64
Windows (7, 8, Server 2008 R2)
Linux (2.6.18 or later)
OSX (10.7 Lion or later)

You may find that other platforms work, but these are our officially supported build environments that are most likely to work.

Rust currently needs between 600MiB and 1.5GiB to build, depending on platform. If it hits swap, it will take a very long time to build.

There is more advice about hacking on Rust in CONTRIBUTING.md.

Getting Help

The Rust community congregates in a few places:


To contribute to Rust, please see CONTRIBUTING.

Rust has an IRC culture and most real-time collaboration happens in a variety of channels on Mozilla's IRC network, irc.mozilla.org. The most popular channel is #rust, a venue for general discussion about Rust. And a good place to ask for help would be #rust-beginners.


Rust is primarily distributed under the terms of both the MIT license and the Apache License (Version 2.0), with portions covered by various BSD-like licenses.