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DOI

The Themis Benchmark

Themis is a collection of real-world, reproducible crash bugs (collected from open-source Android apps) and a unified, extensible infrastructure for benchmarking automated GUI testing for Android and beyond.

You can find more about our work on testing/analyzing Android apps at this website.

Publication (Presentation Video)

[1] "Benchmarking Automated GUI Testing for Android against Real-World Bugs". Ting Su, Jue Wang, Zhendong Su. 29th ACM Joint European Software Engineering Conference and Symposium on the Foundations of Software Engineering (ESEC/FSE 2021)

Screenshot from 2022-08-02 10-05-25

@inproceedings{themis,
  author    = {Ting Su and
               Jue Wang and
               Zhendong Su},
  title     = {Benchmarking Automated GUI Testing for Android against Real-World Bugs},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of 29th ACM Joint European Software Engineering Conference and Symposium 
  		on the Foundations of Software Engineering (ESEC/FSE)},
  pages     = {119--130},
  year      = {2021},
  doi       = {10.1145/3468264.3468620}
}

[1] "Automata-Based Trace Analysis for Aiding Diagnosing {GUI} Testing Tools for Android". Enze Ma, Shan Huang, Weigang He, Ting Su*, Jue Wang, Huiyu Liu, Geguang Pu, Zhendong Su. 31th ACM Joint European Software Engineering Conference and Symposium on the Foundations of Software Engineering (ESEC/FSE 2023)

Tool: DDroid

@inproceedings{DDroid,
  author       = {Enze Ma and
                  Shan Huang and
                  Weigang He and
                  Ting Su and
                  Jue Wang and
                  Huiyu Liu and
                  Geguang Pu and
                  Zhendong Su},
  title        = {Automata-Based Trace Analysis for Aiding Diagnosing {GUI} Testing
                  Tools for Android},
  booktitle    = {Proceedings of the 31st {ACM} Joint European Software Engineering
                  Conference and Symposium on the Foundations of Software Engineering (ESEC/FSE)},
  pages        = {592--604},
  year         = {2023},
  doi          = {10.1145/3611643.3616361}
}

News

- Themis's paper was accepted to ESEC/FSE'21!

- We released Themis's dataset and infrastructure!

- DDroid's paper was accepted to ESEC/FSE'23!

1. Contents of Themis

Themis's bug dataset

Themis now contains 52 reproducible crash bugs. All these bugs are labeled by the app developers as "critical bugs" (i.e., important bugs), which affected the major app functionalities and the larger percentage of app users.

For each bug, we provide:

  • The original bug report of the bug

  • An executable APK (Jacoco-instrumented for coverage collection),

  • A bug-reproducing script and a video

  • The stack trace of the bug

  • Metadata for supporting evaluation (e.g., app login scripts and configuration files used by Themis for code coverage computation)

  • The app source code w.r.t each bug (refer to PROJECTS.md)

List of crash bugs

Issue Id App Bug report, Bug data Code Version App Category GitHub Stars Reproducible (Android SDK)? Network? Login? System Setting?
1 AmazeFileManager #1837, data 3.4.2 File Manager 4.6K 6.0/7.1 no no no
2 AmazeFileManager #1796, data 3.3.2 File Manager 4.6K 4.4/6.0/7.1 no no no
3 AmazeFileManager #1558, data 3.3.2 File Manager 4.6K 6.0/7.1 no no no
4 AmazeFileManager #1232, data 3.2.1 File Manager 4.6K 6.0/7.1 no no no
5 ActivityDiary #285, data 1.4.0 Personal Diary 55 6.0/7.1 no no no
6 ActivityDiary #118, data 1.1.8 Personal Diary 55 6.0/7.1 no no no
7 and-bible #375, data 3.1.309 Bible Reader 231 4.4/6.0/7.1 yes no no
8 and-bible #697, data 3.2.369 Bible Reader 231 6.0/7.1 yes no no
9 and-bible #261, data 3.0.286 Bible Reader 231 6.0/7.1 yes no no
10 and-bible #703, data 3.3.377 Bible Reader 231 6.0/7.1 yes no no
11 and-bible #480, data 3.2.327 Bible Reader 231 4.4/6.0/7.1 yes no no
12 Anki-Android #4707, data 2.9alpha4 Card Learning 6.5K 7.1 no no no
13 Anki-Android #5638, data 2.9.1 Card Learning 6.5K 6.0/7.1 no no no
14 Anki-Android #4200, data 2.6 Card Learning 6.5K 4.4/6.0/7.1 no no no
15 Anki-Android #4451, data 2.7 Card Learning 6.5K 4.4/6.0/7.1 no no no
16 Anki-Android #6145, data 2.10 Card Learning 6.5K 4.4/6.0/7.1 no no yes
17 Anki-Android #5756, data 2.9.4 Card Learning 6.5K 4.4/6.0/7.1 no no no
18 Anki-Android #4977, data 2.9 Card Learning 6.5K 4.4/6.0/7.1 no no no
19 APhotoManager #116, data 0.6.4 Photo Manager 148 4.4/6.0/7.1 no no no
20 collect #3222, data 1.23.0 Form Data Collector 528 4.4/6.0/7.1 yes no no
21 commons #3244, data 2.11.0 Wikimedia 601 6.0/7.1 yes yes no
22 commons #2123, data 2.9.0 Wikimedia 601 6.0/7.1 yes yes no
23 commons #1391(Ref:#1329), data 2.6.7 Wikimedia 601 6.0/7.1 yes yes no
24 commons #1385(Ref:#1329), data 2.6.7 Wikimedia 601 6.0/7.1 yes yes no
25 commons #1581, data 2.7.1 Wikimedia 601 6.0/7.1 yes yes yes
26 FirefoxLite #4881, data 2.1.12 Browser 231 6.0/7.1 yes no no
27 FirefoxLite #5085, data 2.1.20 Browser 231 6.0/7.1 yes no no
28 FirefoxLite #4942, data 2.1.16 Browser 231 6.0/7.1 yes no no
29 Frost-for-Facebook #1323, data 2.2.1 Facebook Client 377 6.0/7.1 yes yes yes
30 geohashdroid #73, data 0.9.4 Geohash 13 4.4/6.0/7.1 no no no
31 MaterialFBook #224, data 4.0.2 Social 122 6.0/7.1 yes yes no
32 nextcloud #5173, data 3.10.0 Productivity 1.9K 6.0/7.1 yes yes no
33 nextcloud #4026, data 3.6.1 Productivity 1.9K 6.0/7.1 yes yes no
34 nextcloud #4792, data 3.9.2 Productivity 1.9K 4.4/6.0/7.1 yes yes no
35 nextcloud #1918, data 2.0.0 Productivity 1.9K 6.0/7.1 yes yes no
36 Omni-Notes #745, data 6.1.0 Notebook 2.1K 4.4/6.0/7.1 no no no
37 open-event-attendee #2198, data 0.5 Social Events 1.5K 6.0/7.1 yes no no
38 openlauncher #67(Ref:#250), data 0.3.1 App Launcher 256 6.0/7.1 no no yes
39 osmeditor4android #729, data 11.0.0 Map 171 4.4/6.0/7.1 no no no
40 osmeditor4android #637, data 0.9.10 Map 171 6.0/7.1 no no no
41 Phonograph #112, data 0.15.0 Music Player 2.4K 4.4/6.0/7.1 no no no
42 Scarlet-Notes #114, data 6.9.5 Notebook 272 4.4/6.0/7.1 no no no
43 sunflower #239, data 0.1.6 Utility Tool 12K 4.4/6.0/7.1 no no no
44 wordpress #8659, data 11.3 Social 2.3K 6.0/7.1 yes yes no
45 wordpress #7182, data 9.2 Social 2.3K 4.4/6.0/7.1 yes yes no
46 wordpress #6530, data 8.1 Social 2.3K 4.4/6.0/7.1 yes yes no
47 wordpress #11992, data 14.9 Social 2.3K 6.0/7.1 yes yes no
48 wordpress #11135, data 13.6 Social 2.3K 6.0/7.1 yes yes no
49 wordpress #10876, data 13.7 Social 2.3K 6.0/7.1 yes yes no
50 wordpress #10547, data 13.3 Social 2.3K 6.0/7.1 yes yes no
51 wordpress #10363, data 13.1 Social 2.3K 6.0/7.1 yes yes no
52 wordpress #10302, data 12.9 Social 2.3K 6.0/7.1 yes yes no
53 AmazeFileManager #3207, data 3.6.7 File Manager 4.6K 6.0/7.1/10.0 no no no
54 AmazeFileManager #3304, data 3.3.2 File Manager 4.6K 7.1 no no no
55 AmazeFileManager #2736, data 3.6.1 File Manager 4.6K 7.1/10.0 no no no
56 AmazeFileManager #2647, data 3.6.1 File Manager 4.6K 6.0/7.1/10.0 no no no
57 AmazeFileManager #3333, data 3.7.0 File Manager 4.6K 6.0/7.1/10.0 no no no
58 Anki-Android #10545, data 2.15.6 Card Learning 6.5K 7.1/10.0 no no yes
59 Anki-Android #8973, data 2.15.1 Card Learning 6.5K 6.0/7.1/10.0 no no no
60 Anki-Android #10840, data 2.16alpha58 Card Learning 6.5K 10.0 no no no
61 Anki-Android #8460, data 2.15alpha39 Card Learning 6.5K 6.0/7.1/10.0 no no no
62 Anki-Android #9914, data 2.16alpha33 Card Learning 6.5K 6.0/7.1/10.0 no no no
63 Anki-Android #10687, data 2.16alpha54 Card Learning 6.5K 6.0/7.1/10.0 no no no
64 Anki-Android #11586, data 2.16alpha67 Card Learning 6.5K 6.0/7.1/10.0 no no yes
65 Anki-Android #9164, data 2.16alpha2 Card Learning 6.5K 6.0/7.1/10.0 no no no
66 Anki-Android #8972, data 2.15.1 Card Learning 6.5K 6.0/7.1/10.0 no no no
67 AntennaPod #5636, data 2.4.0 Podcast Manager 5.0K 6.0/7.1/10.0 yes no no
68 Markor #264, data 0.3.9 Text Editor 2.8K 6.0/7.1/10.0 no no no
69 Markor #1329, data 2.6.0 Text Editor 2.8K 6.0 no no no
70 Markor #1698, data 2.8.5 Text Editor 2.8K 6.0/7.1 no no no
71 MyExpenses #744, data r454 Expense Tracking 559 6.0/7.1/10.0 no no no
72 MyExpenses #825, data r454 Expense Tracking 559 6.0/7.1/10.0 no no no

Themis's Infrastructure

Themis contains a unified, extensible infrastructure for benchmarking automated GUI testing for Android. Any testing tool can be easily integrated into this infrastructure and deployed on a given machine with one line of command.

List of Supported Tools

Tool Name Venue Open-source Main Technique Need App Code? Need App Instrumentation? Supported SDKs Implementation Basis
Monkey - yes Random Testing no no Any -
Sapienz ISSTA'16 no Search-based no no 4.4 Monkey-based
Stoat FSE'17 yes Model-based no no Any A3E-based
Ape ICSE'19 yes Model-based no no 6.0/7.1 Monkey-based
Humanoid ASE'19 yes Deep learning-based no no Any DroidBot-based
ComboDroid ICSE'20 yes Model-based no yes 6.0/7.1 Monkey-based
TimeMachine ICSE'20 yes State-based no yes 4.4/7.1 Monkey-based
Q-testing ISSTA'20 no reinforcement learning-based no no 4.4/7.1/9.0 -

The command line for deployment:

usage: themis.py [-h] [--avd AVD_NAME] [--apk APK] [-n NUMBER_OF_DEVICES] [--apk-list APK_LIST] -o O [--time TIME] [--repeat REPEAT] [--max-emu MAX_EMU] [--no-headless] [--login LOGIN_SCRIPT]
                 [--wait IDLE_TIME] [--monkey] [--ape] [--timemachine] [--combo] [--combo-login] [--humanoid] [--stoat] [--sapienz] [--qtesting] [--weighted] [--offset OFFSET]

optional arguments:
  -h, --help            show this help message and exit
  --avd AVD_NAME        the device name
  --apk APK
  -n NUMBER_OF_DEVICES  number of emulators created for testing, default: 1
  --apk-list APK_LIST   list of apks under test
  -o O                  output dir
  --time TIME           the fuzzing time in hours (e.g., 6h), minutes (e.g., 6m), or seconds (e.g., 6s), default: 6h
  --repeat REPEAT       the repeated number of runs, default: 1
  --max-emu MAX_EMU     the maximum allowed number of emulators
  --no-headless         show gui
  --login LOGIN_SCRIPT  the script for app login
  --wait IDLE_TIME      the idle time to wait before starting the fuzzing
  --monkey
  --ape
  --timemachine
  --combo
  --combo-login
  --humanoid
  --stoat
  --sapienz
  --qtesting
  --offset OFFSET       device offset number w.r.t emulator-5554

Implementation details

The directory structure of Themis is as follows:

Themis
   |
   |--- esecfse2021-paper1009.pdf   the accepted paper of Themis
   |
   |--- scripts:                    scripts for running testing tools and analyzing testing results.
       |
       |--- themis.py:              the main script for deploying themis.
       |
       |--- check_crash.py:         the script to check whether a tool find the bugs.
       |
       |--- compute_coverage.py:    the script to compute the code coverage achieved by a tool.
       |
       |--- compare_bug_triggering_time.py: the script to pairwisely compare bug-triggering times between different tools.        
       |
       |--- run_monkey.sh           the internal shell script to invoke Monkey, Ape, Humanoid, ComboDroid, TimeMachine and Q-testing
       |--- run_ape.sh
       |--- run_humanoid.sh
       |--- run_qtesting.sh
       |--- run_timemachine.sh
       |--- run_combodroid.sh
       |
   |--- tools:                      the supported auotmated testing tools.
       |
       |--- Humanoid                the tool Humanoid 
       |
       |--- TimeMachine             the tool TimeMachine
       | 
       |--- Q-testing               the tool Q-testing
       |
       |--- Ape                     the tool Ape
       |
       |--- ComboDroid              the tool ComboDroid
       |
       |--- Monkey                  the tool Monkey
       |
   |--- app_1:             The bugs collected from app_1.
   |
   |--- app_2:             The bugs collected from app_2.
   |
   |--- ...
   |
   |--- app_N              The bugs collected from app_n.

2. Instructions for Using Themis

The instructions in this section was used for artifact evaluation. In the artifact evaluation, we run Themis in Virtual Machine with all the required stuffs already installed and prepared. You can follow the instructions in this section to get familar with Themis. You can download the VM image Themis.ova (15GB) from this link on Google Drive.

For using Themis for your own research, we recommend you to build and run Themis on a native machine (see 3. Instructions for Reusing Themis).

Prerequisite

  • You need to enable the virtualization technology in your computer's BIOS (see this link for how to enable the virtualization technology). Most computers by default already have this virtualization option turned on.
  • Your computer needs at least 8 CPU cores (4 cores may also work), 16G of memory, and at least 40G of storage.
  • We built our artifact by using VirtualBox v6.1.20. Please install VirtualBox based on your OS type. After installing VirtualBox, you may need to reboot the computer.

Setup Virtual Machine

  1. Open VirtualBox, click "File", click "Import Appliance", then import the file named Themis.ova (this step may take about five to ten minutes to complete).
  2. After the import is completed, you should see "vm" as one of the listed VMs in your VirtualBox.
  3. Click "Settings", click "System", click "Processor", and allocate 4-8 CPU cores (8-cores is preferred), and check "Enable Nested VT-x/AMD-V". Click "Memory", and set memory size to at least 8GB (16GB is preferred). Overall, you can allocate more memory and CPU cores if your system permits to ensure smooth evaluation.
  4. Run the virtual machine. The username is themis and the password is themis-benchmark.
  5. If you could not run the VM with "Nested VT-x/AMD-V" option enabled in VirtualBox, you should check whether the Hyper-V option is enabled. You can disable the Hyper-V option (see this link for more information about this).

Getting Started

Take the quick test to get familar with Themis and validate whether it is ready.

Step 1. open a terminal and switch to Themis's scripts directory

cd the-themis-benchmark/scripts

Step 2. run Monkey on one target bug for 10 minutes

python3 themis.py --no-headless --avd Android7.1 --apk ../ActivityDiary/ActivityDiary-1.1.8-debug-#118.apk --time 10m -o ../monkey-results/ --monkey

Here,

  • --no-headless shows the emulator GUI.
  • --avd Android7.1 specifies the name of the emulator (which has already been created in the VM).
  • --apk ../ActivityDiary/ActivityDiary-1.1.8-debug-#118.apk specifies the target bug which is ActivityDiary's bug #118 in v1.1.8.
  • --time 10m allocates 10 minutes for the testing tool to find the bug
  • -o ../monkey-results/ specifies the output directory of testing results
  • --monkey specifies the testing tool

Expected results: you should see (1) an Android emulator is started, (2) the app ActivityDiary is installed and started, (3) Monkey is started to test the app, (4) the following sample texts are outputted on the terminal during testing, and (5) the emulator is automatically closed at the end.

**click to see the sample output on the terminal of a successful run.**

allocate emulators: emulator-5554
the apk list to fuzz: ['../ActivityDiary/ActivityDiary-1.1.8-debug-#118.apk']
True
Now allocate the apk: ../ActivityDiary/ActivityDiary-1.1.8-debug-#118.apk on emulator-5554
its login script: ""
wait the allocated devices to finish...
execute monkey: bash -x run_monkey.sh ../ActivityDiary/ActivityDiary-1.1.8-debug-#118.apk emulator-5554 Android7.1 ../monkey-results/ 10m "" ""
+ APK_FILE=../ActivityDiary/ActivityDiary-1.1.8-debug-#118.apk
+ AVD_SERIAL=emulator-5554
+ AVD_NAME=Android7.1
+ OUTPUT_DIR=../monkey-results/
+ TEST_TIME=10m
+ HEADLESS=
+ LOGIN_SCRIPT=
+ RETRY_TIMES=5
++ seq 1 5
+ for i in $(seq 1 $RETRY_TIMES)
+ echo 'try to start the emulator (emulator-5554)...'
try to start the emulator (emulator-5554)...
+ sleep 5
+ avd_port=5554
+ sleep 5
+ emulator -port 5554 -avd Android7.1 -read-only
emulator: Requested console port 5554: Inferring adb port 5555.
qemu-system-i386: warning: TSC frequency mismatch between VM (2903985 kHz) and host (2903991 kHz), and TSC scaling unavailable
qemu-system-i386: warning: TSC frequency mismatch between VM (2903985 kHz) and host (2903991 kHz), and TSC scaling unavailable
+ wait_for_device emulator-5554
+ avd_serial=emulator-5554
+ timeout 5s adb -s emulator-5554 wait-for-device
++ adb -s emulator-5554 shell getprop init.svc.bootanim
adb: device offline
+ OUT=
+ i=0
+ [[ '' != \s\t\o\p\p\e\d ]]
+ echo '   Waiting for emulator (emulator-5554) to fully boot (#0 times) ...'
   Waiting for emulator (emulator-5554) to fully boot (#0 times) ...
+ sleep 5
++ expr 0 + 1
+ i=1
+ [[ 1 == 10 ]]
++ adb -s emulator-5554 shell getprop init.svc.bootanim
adb: device offline
+ OUT=
+ [[ '' != \s\t\o\p\p\e\d ]]
+ echo '   Waiting for emulator (emulator-5554) to fully boot (#1 times) ...'
   Waiting for emulator (emulator-5554) to fully boot (#1 times) ...
+ sleep 5
++ expr 1 + 1
+ i=2
+ [[ 2 == 10 ]]
++ adb -s emulator-5554 shell getprop init.svc.bootanim
adb: device offline
+ OUT=
+ [[ '' != \s\t\o\p\p\e\d ]]
+ echo '   Waiting for emulator (emulator-5554) to fully boot (#2 times) ...'
   Waiting for emulator (emulator-5554) to fully boot (#2 times) ...
+ sleep 5
++ expr 2 + 1
+ i=3
+ [[ 3 == 10 ]]
++ adb -s emulator-5554 shell getprop init.svc.bootanim
adb: device offline
+ OUT=
+ [[ '' != \s\t\o\p\p\e\d ]]
+ echo '   Waiting for emulator (emulator-5554) to fully boot (#3 times) ...'
   Waiting for emulator (emulator-5554) to fully boot (#3 times) ...
+ sleep 5
++ expr 3 + 1
+ i=4
+ [[ 4 == 10 ]]
++ adb -s emulator-5554 shell getprop init.svc.bootanim
adb: device offline
+ OUT=
+ [[ '' != \s\t\o\p\p\e\d ]]
+ echo '   Waiting for emulator (emulator-5554) to fully boot (#4 times) ...'
   Waiting for emulator (emulator-5554) to fully boot (#4 times) ...
+ sleep 5
++ expr 4 + 1
+ i=5
+ [[ 5 == 10 ]]
++ adb -s emulator-5554 shell getprop init.svc.bootanim
adb: device offline
+ OUT=
+ [[ '' != \s\t\o\p\p\e\d ]]
+ echo '   Waiting for emulator (emulator-5554) to fully boot (#5 times) ...'
   Waiting for emulator (emulator-5554) to fully boot (#5 times) ...
+ sleep 5
++ expr 5 + 1
+ i=6
+ [[ 6 == 10 ]]
++ adb -s emulator-5554 shell getprop init.svc.bootanim
adb: device offline
+ OUT=
+ [[ '' != \s\t\o\p\p\e\d ]]
+ echo '   Waiting for emulator (emulator-5554) to fully boot (#6 times) ...'
   Waiting for emulator (emulator-5554) to fully boot (#6 times) ...
+ sleep 5
++ expr 6 + 1
+ i=7
+ [[ 7 == 10 ]]
++ adb -s emulator-5554 shell getprop init.svc.bootanim
adb: device offline
+ OUT=
+ [[ '' != \s\t\o\p\p\e\d ]]
+ echo '   Waiting for emulator (emulator-5554) to fully boot (#7 times) ...'
   Waiting for emulator (emulator-5554) to fully boot (#7 times) ...
+ sleep 5
++ expr 7 + 1
+ i=8
+ [[ 8 == 10 ]]
++ adb -s emulator-5554 shell getprop init.svc.bootanim
adb: device offline
+ OUT=
+ [[ '' != \s\t\o\p\p\e\d ]]
+ echo '   Waiting for emulator (emulator-5554) to fully boot (#8 times) ...'
   Waiting for emulator (emulator-5554) to fully boot (#8 times) ...
+ sleep 5
++ expr 8 + 1
+ i=9
+ [[ 9 == 10 ]]
++ adb -s emulator-5554 shell getprop init.svc.bootanim
adb: device offline
+ OUT=
+ [[ '' != \s\t\o\p\p\e\d ]]
+ echo '   Waiting for emulator (emulator-5554) to fully boot (#9 times) ...'
   Waiting for emulator (emulator-5554) to fully boot (#9 times) ...
+ sleep 5
++ expr 9 + 1
+ i=10
+ [[ 10 == 10 ]]
+ echo 'Cannot connect to the device: (emulator-5554) after (#10 times)...'
Cannot connect to the device: (emulator-5554) after (#10 times)...
+ break
++ adb -s emulator-5554 shell getprop init.svc.bootanim
adb: device offline
+ OUT=
+ [[ '' != \s\t\o\p\p\e\d ]]
+ adb -s emulator-5554 emu kill
OK: killing emulator, bye bye
OK
+ echo 'try to restart the emulator (emulator-5554)...'
try to restart the emulator (emulator-5554)...
+ [[ 10 == RETRY_TIMES ]]
+ for i in $(seq 1 $RETRY_TIMES)
+ echo 'try to start the emulator (emulator-5554)...'
try to start the emulator (emulator-5554)...
+ sleep 5
emulator: WARNING: Not saving state: RAM not mapped as shared
+ avd_port=5554
+ sleep 5
+ emulator -port 5554 -avd Android7.1 -read-only
emulator: Requested console port 5554: Inferring adb port 5555.
qemu-system-i386: warning: TSC frequency mismatch between VM (2903985 kHz) and host (2903991 kHz), and TSC scaling unavailable
qemu-system-i386: warning: TSC frequency mismatch between VM (2903985 kHz) and host (2903991 kHz), and TSC scaling unavailable
+ wait_for_device emulator-5554
+ avd_serial=emulator-5554
+ timeout 5s adb -s emulator-5554 wait-for-device
++ adb -s emulator-5554 shell getprop init.svc.bootanim
+ OUT=stopped
+ i=0
+ [[ stopped != \s\t\o\p\p\e\d ]]
++ adb -s emulator-5554 shell getprop init.svc.bootanim
+ OUT=stopped
+ [[ stopped != \s\t\o\p\p\e\d ]]
+ break
+ echo '  emulator (emulator-5554) is booted!'
  emulator (emulator-5554) is booted!
+ adb -s emulator-5554 root
restarting adbd as root
++ date +%Y-%m-%d-%H-%M-%S
+ current_date_time=2021-05-26-16-58-44
++ basename ../ActivityDiary/ActivityDiary-1.1.8-debug-#118.apk
+ apk_file_name=ActivityDiary-1.1.8-debug-#118.apk
+ result_dir=../monkey-results//ActivityDiary-1.1.8-debug-#118.apk.monkey.result.emulator-5554.Android7.1#2021-05-26-16-58-44
+ mkdir -p ../monkey-results//ActivityDiary-1.1.8-debug-#118.apk.monkey.result.emulator-5554.Android7.1#2021-05-26-16-58-44
+ echo '** CREATING RESULT DIR (emulator-5554): ' ../monkey-results//ActivityDiary-1.1.8-debug-#118.apk.monkey.result.emulator-5554.Android7.1#2021-05-26-16-58-44
** CREATING RESULT DIR (emulator-5554):  ../monkey-results//ActivityDiary-1.1.8-debug-#118.apk.monkey.result.emulator-5554.Android7.1#2021-05-26-16-58-44
+ [[ '' != '' ]]
+ adb -s emulator-5554 install -g ../ActivityDiary/ActivityDiary-1.1.8-debug-#118.apk
+ echo '** INSTALL APP (emulator-5554)'
** INSTALL APP (emulator-5554)
+ sleep 10
++ aapt dump badging ../ActivityDiary/ActivityDiary-1.1.8-debug-#118.apk
++ grep package
++ awk '{print $2}'
++ sed s/name=//g
++ sed 's/'\''//g'
+ app_package_name=de.rampro.activitydiary.debug
+ echo '** PROCESSING APP (emulator-5554): ' de.rampro.activitydiary.debug
** PROCESSING APP (emulator-5554):  de.rampro.activitydiary.debug
+ echo '** START LOGCAT (emulator-5554) '
** START LOGCAT (emulator-5554) 
+ adb -s emulator-5554 logcat -c
+ echo '** START COVERAGE (emulator-5554) '
** START COVERAGE (emulator-5554) 
+ adb -s emulator-5554 logcat AndroidRuntime:E CrashAnrDetector:D System.err:W CustomActivityOnCrash:E ACRA:E WordPress-EDITOR:E '*:F' '*:S'
+ echo '** RUN MONKEY (emulator-5554)'
** RUN MONKEY (emulator-5554)
+ adb -s emulator-5554 shell date +%Y-%m-%d-%H:%M:%S
+ bash dump_coverage.sh emulator-5554 de.rampro.activitydiary.debug ../monkey-results//ActivityDiary-1.1.8-debug-#118.apk.monkey.result.emulator-5554.Android7.1#2021-05-26-16-58-44
+ timeout 10m adb -s emulator-5554 shell monkey -p de.rampro.activitydiary.debug -v --throttle 200 --ignore-crashes --ignore-timeouts --ignore-security-exceptions --bugreport 1000000
+ tee ../monkey-results//ActivityDiary-1.1.8-debug-#118.apk.monkey.result.emulator-5554.Android7.1#2021-05-26-16-58-44/monkey.log
:Monkey: seed=1622177363949 count=1000000
:AllowPackage: de.rampro.activitydiary.debug
:IncludeCategory: android.intent.category.LAUNCHER
:IncludeCategory: android.intent.category.MONKEY
// Event percentages:
//   0: 15.0%
//   1: 10.0%
//   2: 2.0%
//   3: 15.0%
//   4: -0.0%
//   5: -0.0%
//   6: 25.0%
//   7: 15.0%
//   8: 2.0%
//   9: 2.0%
//   10: 1.0%
//   11: 13.0%
:Switch: #Intent;action=android.intent.action.MAIN;category=android.intent.category.LAUNCHER;launchFlags=0x10200000;component=de.rampro.activitydiary.debug/de.rampro.activitydiary.ui.main.MainActivity;end
    // Allowing start of Intent { act=android.intent.action.MAIN cat=[android.intent.category.LAUNCHER] cmp=de.rampro.activitydiary.debug/de.rampro.activitydiary.ui.main.MainActivity } in package de.rampro.activitydiary.debug
:Sending Trackball (ACTION_MOVE): 0:(3.0,0.0)
:Sending Touch (ACTION_DOWN): 0:(6.0,111.0)
:Sending Touch (ACTION_UP): 0:(75.08969,0.25681877)
:Sending Touch (ACTION_DOWN): 0:(461.0,414.0)
:Sending Touch (ACTION_UP): 0:(463.19458,413.57645)
:Sending Touch (ACTION_DOWN): 0:(443.0,1154.0)
:Sending Touch (ACTION_UP): 0:(337.0955,1190.089)
:Sending Touch (ACTION_DOWN): 0:(392.0,379.0)
:Sending Touch (ACTION_UP): 0:(404.1744,297.83728)
:Sending Trackball (ACTION_MOVE): 0:(-1.0,-4.0)
:Sending Touch (ACTION_DOWN): 0:(739.0,89.0)
:Sending Touch (ACTION_UP): 0:(800.0,146.10786)
:Sending Trackball (ACTION_MOVE): 0:(-3.0,4.0)
:Sending Touch (ACTION_DOWN): 0:(749.0,443.0)
:Sending Touch (ACTION_UP): 0:(747.92065,456.49356)
:Sending Touch (ACTION_DOWN): 0:(485.0,814.0)
:Sending Touch (ACTION_UP): 0:(492.87933,804.6225)
:Sending Trackball (ACTION_MOVE): 0:(-4.0,-4.0)
:Sending Trackball (ACTION_MOVE): 0:(0.0,2.0)
:Sending Touch (ACTION_DOWN): 0:(454.0,119.0)
:Sending Touch (ACTION_UP): 0:(465.00302,121.41099)
:Sending Touch (ACTION_DOWN): 0:(476.0,305.0)
:Sending Touch (ACTION_UP): 0:(476.1956,313.51404)
+ adb -s emulator-5554 shell date +%Y-%m-%d-%H:%M:%S
+ echo '** STOP MONKEY (emulator-5554)'
** STOP MONKEY (emulator-5554)
++ adb -s emulator-5554 shell ps
++ grep monkey
++ awk '{print $2}'
+ adb -s emulator-5554 shell kill 17521
+ echo '** STOP COVERAGE (emulator-5554)'
** STOP COVERAGE (emulator-5554)
++ ps aux
++ grep 'dump_coverage.sh emulator-5554'
++ grep -v grep
++ awk '{print $2}'
+ kill 1248836
+ echo '** STOP LOGCAT (emulator-5554)'
** STOP LOGCAT (emulator-5554)
++ ps aux
++ grep 'emulator-5554 logcat'
++ grep -v grep
++ awk '{print $2}'
+ kill 1248835
+ sleep 5
+ adb -s emulator-5554 emu kill
OK: killing emulator, bye bye
OK
+ echo '@@@@@@ Finish (emulator-5554): ' de.rampro.activitydiary.debug @@@@@@@
@@@@@@ Finish (emulator-5554):  de.rampro.activitydiary.debug @@@@@@@

Step 3. inspect the output files

If Step 2 succeeds, you can see the outputs under ../monkey-results/ (i.e., /home/themis/the-themis-benchmark/monkey-results).

$ cd ../monkey-results/
$ ls
  ActivityDiary-1.1.8-debug-#118.apk.monkey.result.emulator-5554.Android7.1#2020-06-24-20:39:27/         # the output directory
$ cd ActivityDiary-1.1.8-debug-#118.apk.monkey.result.emulator-5554.Android7.1#2020-06-24-20:39:27/
$ ls
  coverage_1.ec   # the coverage data file  (used for computing coverage)
  coverage_2.ec 
  install.log     # the log of app installation
  logcat.log      # the system log of emulator (this file contains the crash stack traces if the target bug was triggered)
  monkey.log      # the log of Monkey (including the events that Monkey generates)
  monkey_testing_time_on_emulator.txt  # the first line is the starting testing time, and the second line is the ending testing time

How to validate: If you can see all these files and these files are non-empty (use ls -l to check), the quick test succeeds. Note that the number of coverage data files (e.g., coverage_1.ec) varies according to the testing time. In practice, Themis notifies an app to dump coverage data every five minutes. Please note that the outuput files of different testing tools may vary (but all the other tools have these similar types of output files like Monkey).

Detailed Instructions

I. The supported tools

Themis now supports and maintains 6 state-of-the-art fully-automated testing tools for Android (see below). These tools can be cloned from Themis's repositories and are put under the-themis-benchmark/tools.

Note that these tools are the modified/enhanced versions of their originals because we coordinated with the authors of these tools to assure correct and rigorous setup (e.g., report the encountered tool bugs to the authors for fixing). We tried our best efforts to minimize the bias and ensure that each tool is at "its best state" in bug finding (see Section 3.2 in the Themis's paper).

Specifically, we track the tool modifications to facilitate review and validation. We spent slight efforts to integrate Monkey, Ape, Humanoid and Q-testing into Themis. Combodroid was modifled by its author and intergrated into Themis, while TimeMachine was modified by us and later verified by its authors (view this commit to check all the modifications/enhancements made in TimeMachine).

II. Running the supported tools

** In the following, we take Monkey as a tool and ActivityDiary-1.1.8-debug-#118.apk as a target bug to illustrate how to replicate the whole evaluation, and how to validate the artifact if you do not have enough resources/time**

[Replicate the whole evaluation]:

Step 1. run Monkey on ActivityDiary-1.1.8-debug-#118.apk for 6 hours and repeat this process for 5 runs. This step will take 30 hours to finish because of 5 runs of testing on one emulator. We do not recommend to run more than one emulators in the VM because of the limited memory and performance. If you do not have enough resource/time, see the instruction below.

python3 themis.py --no-headless --avd Android7.1 --apk ../ActivityDiary/ActivityDiary-1.1.8-debug-#118.apk -n 1 --repeat 5 --time 6h -o ../monkey-results/ --monkey 

Here,

  • --no-headless shows the emulator GUI
  • --avd Android7.1 specifies the name of the emulator (which has already been created in the VM).
  • --apk ../ActivityDiary/ActivityDiary-1.1.8-debug-#118.apk specifies the target bug which is ActivityDiary's bug #118 in v1.1.8.
  • -n 1 denotes one emulator instance will be created (in practice at most 16 emulators are allowed to run in parallel on one native machine)
  • --repeat 5 denotes the testing process will be repeated for 5 runs (these 5 runs will be distributed to the available emulator instances)
  • --time 6h allocates 6 hours for the testing tool to find the bug
  • -o ../monkey-results/ specifies the output directory of testing results
  • --monkey specifies the testing tool

[Validate the artifact if you do not have enough resources/time: run 1-2 tools on 1-2 bugs at your will with limited testing time]:

For example, in Step 1, we recommend you to shorten the testing time (e.g., use --time 1h for 1 hour or --time 30m for 30 minutes). Thus, you can use the following command (this step will take 2 hours to finish because of 2 runs of testing on one emulator).

python3 themis.py --no-headless --avd Android7.1 --apk ../ActivityDiary/ActivityDiary-1.1.8-debug-#118.apk -n 1 --repeat 2 --time 1h -o ../monkey-results/ --monkey 

Step 2. When the testing terminates, you can inspect whether the target bug was found or not in each run, how long does it take to find the bug, and how many times the bug was found by using the command below.

python3 check_crash.py --monkey -o ../monkey-results/ --app ActivityDiary --id \#118 --simple

Here,

  • --app ActivityDiary specifies the target app (You can omit this option to check all the tested apps and their bugs).
  • --id \#118 specifies the target bug id (You can omit this option to check all the target bugs of app ActivityDiary).
  • --simple outputs the checking result to the terminal for quick check (You can substitute --simple with --csv FILE_PATH to output the checking results into a CSV file).
  • Use -h to see the detailed list of command options.

An example output could be (In this case, the target bug, ActivityDiary's #118, was not found by Moneky in all the five runs):

**click to see the sample output.**

ActivityDiary

=========

[ActivityDiary, #118] scanning (ActivityDiary-1.1.8-debug-#118.apk.monkey.result.emulator-5554.Android7.1#2020-06-24-20:39:27) [ActivityDiary, #118] testing time: 2020-06-24-20:39:33 the start testing time is: 2020-06-24-20:39:33 the start testing time (parsed) is: 2020-06-24 20:39:33

[ActivityDiary, #118] scanning (ActivityDiary-1.1.8-debug-#118.apk.monkey.result.emulator-5556.Android7.1#2020-06-24-20:39:32) [ActivityDiary, #118] testing time: 2020-06-24-20:39:36 the start testing time is: 2020-06-24-20:39:36 the start testing time (parsed) is: 2020-06-24 20:39:36

[ActivityDiary, #118] scanning (ActivityDiary-1.1.8-debug-#118.apk.monkey.result.emulator-5558.Android7.1#2020-06-24-20:39:37) [ActivityDiary, #118] testing time: 2020-06-24-20:39:43 the start testing time is: 2020-06-24-20:39:43 the start testing time (parsed) is: 2020-06-24 20:39:43

[ActivityDiary, #118] scanning (ActivityDiary-1.1.8-debug-#118.apk.monkey.result.emulator-5560.Android7.1#2020-06-24-20:39:42) [ActivityDiary, #118] testing time: 2020-06-24-20:39:47 the start testing time is: 2020-06-24-20:39:47 the start testing time (parsed) is: 2020-06-24 20:39:47

[ActivityDiary, #118] scanning (ActivityDiary-1.1.8-debug-#118.apk.monkey.result.emulator-5562.Android7.1#2020-06-24-20:39:47) [ActivityDiary, #118] testing time: 2020-06-24-20:39:52 the start testing time is: 2020-06-24-20:39:52 the start testing time (parsed) is: 2020-06-24 20:39:52

Another example output could be (In this case, the target bug, AnkiDroid's #4451, was found by 1 time after running Monkey for 55 minutes in one run):

**click to see the sample output.**

AnkiDroid

=========

[AnkiDroid, #4451] scanning (AnkiDroid-debug-2.7beta1-#4451.apk.monkey.result.emulator-5554.Android7.1#2020-06-26-00:59:31) [AnkiDroid, #4451] testing time: 2020-06-26-00:59:32 [AnkiDroid, #4451] testing time: 2020-06-26-06:59:32 the start testing time is: 2020-06-26-00:59:32 the start testing time (parsed) is: 2020-06-26 00:59:32

[AnkiDroid, #4451] scanning (AnkiDroid-debug-2.7beta1-#4451.apk.monkey.result.emulator-5576.Android7.1#2020-06-26-12:04:55) [AnkiDroid, #4451] testing time: 2020-06-26-12:04:57 [AnkiDroid, #4451] testing time: 2020-06-26-18:04:57 the start testing time is: 2020-06-26-12:04:57 the start testing time (parsed) is: 2020-06-26 12:04:57

[AnkiDroid, #4451] scanning (AnkiDroid-debug-2.7beta1-#4451.apk.monkey.result.emulator-5574.Android7.1#2020-06-26-12:04:55) [AnkiDroid, #4451] testing time: 2020-06-26-12:04:56 [AnkiDroid, #4451] testing time: 2020-06-26-18:04:56 the start testing time is: 2020-06-26-12:04:56 the start testing time (parsed) is: 2020-06-26 12:04:56

[AnkiDroid, #4451] scanning (AnkiDroid-debug-2.7beta1-#4451.apk.monkey.result.emulator-5558.Android7.1#2020-06-26-00:59:38) [AnkiDroid, #4451] testing time: 2020-06-26-00:59:39 [AnkiDroid, #4451] testing time: 2020-06-26-06:59:40 the start testing time is: 2020-06-26-00:59:39 the start testing time (parsed) is: 2020-06-26 00:59:39

[AnkiDroid, #4451] scanning (AnkiDroid-debug-2.7beta1-#4451.apk.monkey.result.emulator-5556.Android7.1#2020-06-26-00:59:33) [AnkiDroid, #4451] testing time: 2020-06-26-00:59:34 [AnkiDroid, #4451] testing time: 2020-06-26-06:59:35 the start testing time is: 2020-06-26-00:59:34 the start testing time (parsed) is: 2020-06-26 00:59:34 [AnkiDroid, #4451] the crash was triggered (1) times [AnkiDroid, #4451] the time duration: ['55'] (mins)

Notes

(1) You can substitute --monkey with --ape or --combo in the command line in Step 1 to directly run the corresponding tool. You may need to change the output directory -o ../monkey-results/ to a distinct directory, e.g., -o ../ape-results. You can follow the similar steps described in Step 2 to inspect whether the target bug was found or not and the related info.

(2) Specifically, for humanoid, before running, you need to setup the specific virtual Python environment of Humanoid. Open a terminal, and run:

cd /home/themis/the-themis-benchmark/tools/Humanoid-tool
source venv/bin/activate   # Humanoid depends on tensorflow 1.12, which requires specific Python version
cd Humanoid
python3 agent.py -c config.json   # start the server of Humanoid

Open a new terminal, run Humanoid (which internally runs droidbot) on the emulator Android7.1_Humanoid (with specific screen size):

cd /home/themis/the-themis-benchmark/scripts/
python3 themis.py --no-headless --avd Android7.1_Humanoid --apk ../ActivityDiary/ActivityDiary-1.1.8-debug-#118.apk --time 10m -o ../humanoid-results --humanoid

Remember to execute deactivate when you finish the running to exit from the specific virtual Python environment.

(3) For Q-testing, before running, you need to setup the specific virtual Python environment of Q-testing. Open a terminal, and run:

cd /home/themis/the-themis-benchmark/tools/Q-testing
source venv/bin/activate   # Q-testing depends on Python 2.7

And then, run the command line:

cd /home/themis/the-themis-benchmark/scripts/
python3 themis.py --no-headless --avd Android7.1 --apk ../ActivityDiary/ActivityDiary-1.1.8-debug-#118.apk --time 10m -o ../qtesting-results/ --qtesting
ing

Remember to execute deactivate when you finish the running to exit from the specific virtual Python environment.

(4) For TimeMachine, we cannot build TimeMachine within this VM because TimeMachine tests apps by using Docker on which it runs another layer of VirtualBox. Thus, we strongly recommend to build TimeMachine on the native machines if you want to evaluate it (see the instructions in its repo: https://github.com/the-themis-benchmarks/TimeMachine).

(5) If the app under test requires user login (see the Table of bug dataset), you should specify the login script. Themis will call the login script before testing. For example, if we run Monkey on ../nextcloud/nextcloud-#5173.apk which requires user login, the command line should be:

python3 themis.py --no-headless --avd Android7.1 --apk ../nextcloud/nextcloud-#5173.apk --time 10m -o ../monkey-results/ --login ../nextcloud/login-#5173.py --monkey 

Here,

  • --login ../nextcloud/login-#5173.py specifies the login script (which will be executed before GUI testing)
  • In practice, we use the emulator snapshot to save the app login state directly (see LOGIN_APPS.md for details).

3. Instructions for Reusing Themis

Build and Use Themis from Scratch

In practice, we strongly recommend the users to setup our artifact on local native machines or remote servers rather than virtual machines to ensure (1) the optimal testing performance and (2) evaluation efficiency. Thus, we provide the instructions to setup Themis from scratch.

Prerequisite

  1. Ubuntu 18.04/20.04
  2. Python 3
  3. Android environment (Android 7.1 or above)
  4. Docker (needed by TimeMachine)

Steps

  1. create an Android emulator before running Themis (see this link for creating an emulator using avdmanager).
  • An example: create an Android emulator Android7.1 with SDK version 7.1 (API level 25), X86 ABI image and Google APIs:
sdkmanager "system-images;android-25;google_apis;x86"
avdmanager create avd --force --name Android7.1 --package 'system-images;android-25;google_apis;x86' --abi google_apis/x86 --sdcard 1024M --device 'Nexus 7'
  1. (optional) modify the emulator configuration to ensure optimal testing performance of testing tools:

In our evaluation, we set an emulator with 2GB RAM, 1GB SdCard, 1GB internal storage and 256MB heap size (the file for modification usually is: ~/.android/avd/Android7.1.avd/config.ini)

sdcard.size=1024M
disk.dataPartition.size=1024M
vm.heapSize=256
hw.ramSize=2048
  1. (optional but recommended) copy dummy documents into emulators to allow file access from the apps under test
emulator -avd avd_Android7.1 -port 5554 &
cd themis/scripts
bash -x copy_dummy_documents.sh emulator-5554
adb emu kill emulator-5554
  1. install uiautomator2, which is used for executing login scripts
pip3 install --upgrade --pre uiautomator2
  1. If you run Themis on remote servers, please omit the option --no-headless which turns off the emulator GUI.

  2. Install all the necessary dependecies required by the respective testing tools. Please see the README.md of each tool in its Themis's repository. We provided the detailed building instructions.

Welcome your contribution!

Extend Themis for our research community

1. Add new crash bugs into Themis

Take ActivityDiary-1.1.8-debug-#118.apk as an example, the basic steps to add such a bug into Themis's dataset include:

  • build the buggy app version into an executable apk file (i.e., ActivityDiary/ActivityDiary-1.1.8-debug-#118.apk, where ActivityDiary is the app name, 1.1.8 is the code version, #118 is the original issue id.)
  • reproduce the bug and record the stack trace (i.e., ActivityDiary/crash_stack_#118.txt)
  • write a bug-triggering script in uiautomator2 and record a bug-triggering video (i.e., ActivityDiary/script-#118.py and ActivityDiary/video-#118.mp4)
  • add a JSON file to facilitate coverage computation at runtime (this step is only required by TimeMachine) which describes its class files and source files (i.e., ActivityDiary/class_files.json)

The basic steps to add such a bug into Themis's infrastructure include:

  • In scripts/check_crash.py, one should add the app name into list ALL_APPS and the crash signature (i.e., the crash type info and the partial crash trace related to the app itself) into dict app_crash_data.

In the future, we plan to (1) add the crash bugs from other existing benchmarks, (2) add crash bugs with different levels of severity rather than only critical ones.

2. Add new testing tools into Themis

Take Monkey as an example, the basic steps to add a new tool into Themis's infrastructure include:

  • add an internal shell script to invoke the new tool (see scripts/run_monkey.sh) which defines (1) the concrete command line of invoking the tool, (2) the outputs of the tool, and (3) the tool-specific configurations before running
  • add the call of this shell script in scripts/themis.py (see function run_monkey)
  • add the code of parsing the outputs of the new tool in scripts/check_crash.py.

In fact, we already have successfully integrated FastBot, an industrial testing tool developed by ByteDance, into Themis. See the script for supporting FastBot.

3. Optimize and enhance existing supported tools

In Themis's paper, Section 4.2 and 4.3 point out many optimization opportunities and future research for improving existing testing tools. By using Themis,

  • The tool authors or other researchers can debug/validate the tool improvement and evaluate/compare with new testing tools
  • We can contribute new enhancement features to the original tools by pull requests because Themis forked the testing tools from their original repositories.

4. Coverage profiling and analysis

Themis now supports coverage profiling by running

python3 compute_coverage.py -o ../monkey-results --monkey --app ActivityDiary --id \#118 --acc_csv

The main usage is:

usage: compute_coverage.py [-h] -o O [-v] [--monkey] [--ape] [--timemachine] [--combo] [--humandroid] [--qtesting] [--stoat] [--app APP_NAME] [--id ISSUE_ID] [--acc_csv ACC_CSV] [--single_csv SINGLE_CSV]
                           [--average_csv AVERAGE_CSV]

optional arguments:
  -h, --help            show this help message and exit
  -o O                  the output directory of testing results
  -v
  --monkey
  --ape
  --timemachine
  --combo
  --humandroid
  --qtesting
  --app APP_NAME
  --id ISSUE_ID
  --acc_csv ACC_CSV     compute the accumulative coverage of all runs
  --single_csv SINGLE_CSV
                        compute the coverage of single runs
  --average_csv AVERAGE_CSV
                        compute the average coverage of all runs

By leveraging the results, one can inspect the detailed coverage report generated by Jacoco.

5. Oher research purposes

Themis can also benefit other research (e.g., fault localization, program repair, etc.)

Main maintainers/contributors

Ting Su, East China Normal University, China

Jue Wang, Nanjing University, China

Zhendong Su, ETH Zurich, Switzerland

We appreciate the contributions from:

  • Enze Ma, Beijing Forestry University, China

  • Weigang He, East China Normal University, China

  • Shan Huang, East China Normal University, China

We welcome any feedback or questions on Themis. Free feel to share your ideas, open issues or pull requests. We are actively maintaining Themis to benefit our community.

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The Themis Benchmark for evaluating automated GUI testing

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