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hcxdumptool

Small tool to capture packets from wlan devices and to discover potential weak points within own WiFi networks (e.g.: PreSharedKey or PlainMasterKey is transmitted unencrypted by a CLIENT).

Brief description

Stand-alone binaries - designed to run on Arch Linux, but other Linux distributions should work, too.

Capture format pcapng is compatible to Wireshark and tshark.

Read this post: hcxtools - solution for capturing wlan traffic and conversion to hashcat formats (https://hashcat.net/forum/thread-6661.html)

Read this post: New attack on WPA/WPA2 using PMKID (https://hashcat.net/forum/thread-7717.html)

Read this post: Hash mode 22000 explained (https://hashcat.net/forum/thread-10253.html)

Read this wiki: https://hashcat.net/wiki/doku.php?id=cracking_wpawpa2

Unsupported: Windows OS, macOS, Android, emulators or wrappers and NETLINK!

Detailed description

Tool Description
hcxdumptool Tool to run several tests to determine if ACCESS POINTs or CLIENTs are vulnerable
hcxpioff Turns Raspberry Pi off via GPIO switch

Work flow

hcxdumptool -> hcxpcapngtool -> hcxhashtool (additional hcxpsktool/hcxeiutool) -> hashcat or JtR

hcxdumptool: attack and capture everything (depending on options)

hcxpcapngtool: convert everything

hcxhashtool: filter hashes

hcxpsktool: get weak PSK candidates

hcxeiutool: calculate wordlists from ESSID

hashcat or JtR: get PSK from hash

Get source

git clone https://github.com/ZerBea/hcxdumptool.git
cd hcxdumptool

Solve dependencies (Debian based distributions >= bullseye: KALI, UBUNTU, ...)

You need to install missing dependencies before running make:

sudo apt-get install libcurl4-openssl-dev libssl-dev pkg-config

Compile

make
make install (as super user)

Or install via packet manager

Arch Linux

Arch Linux pacman -S hcxtools

Arch Linux ARM

Arch Linux ARM pacman -S hcxtools

Black Arch

Black Arch is an Arch Linux-based penetration testing distribution for penetration testers and security researchers
pacman -S hcxtools

Compile for Android

You need:

  • Android NDK installed in your system and in path variable

  • This repository cloned with all submodules (--recursive flag in git clone or git submodules update command run)

Just run ndk-build - built executables for some architectures should be created inside libs directory. Copy it to your phone and enjoy.

Requirements

  • knowledge of radio technology
  • knowledge of electromagnetic-wave engineering
  • detailed knowledge of 802.11 protocol
  • detailed knowledge of key derivation functions
  • detailed knowledge of Linux
  • operatingsystem: Linux distribution, Kernel >= 5.10
  • recommended: Arch Linux on notebooks and desktop systems, Arch Linux Arm on Raspberry Pi >= ARMv7 systems, Raspbian OS Lite on Raspberry Pi ARMv6 systems
  • chipset must be able to run in monitor mode. Recommended: MEDIATEK (MT7601) or RALINK (RT2870, RT3070, RT5370) chipset
  • driver must (mandatory) support monitor mode as well as full packet injection and ioctl() system calls
  • driver must not depend on NETLINK (libnl)
  • gcc >= 11 recommended (deprecated versions are not supported: https://gcc.gnu.org/)
  • libopenssl (>= 3.0) and openssl-dev installed
  • pkg-config installed
  • Raspberry Pi A, B, A+, B+, Zero (WH). (Recommended: Zero (WH) or A+, because of a very low power consumption), but notebooks and desktops will work, too.
  • GPIO hardware mod recommended (push button and LED) on Raspberry Pi
  • to allow 5/6GHz packet injection, it is mandatory to uncomment a regulatory domain that support this: /etc/conf.d/wireless-regdom

If you decide to compile latest git head, make sure that your distribution is updated to latest version.

ioctl() system calls versus NETLINK

  • ioctl() system calls are purely synchronous and should be the first choice due to its immediacy and reliable delivery.
  • Netlink comms is very much asynchronous and should be used for bulk data.

Adapters

Driver must support (mandatory) ioctl() system calls, monitor mode and full packet injection.

NETLINK (libnl) is not supported (asynchronous).

Get information about VENDOR, model, chipset and driver here: https://wikidevi.wi-cat.ru/

Manufacturers do change chipsets without changing model numbers. Sometimes they add (v)ersion or (rev)vision.

Prefered chipsets MediaTek and Ralink because stock kernel drivers are well maintained, ioctl() system call support, monitor mode and full frame injection out of the box.

This list is for information purposes only and should not be regarded as a binding presentation of the products:

  • ID 148f:7601 Ralink Technology, Corp. MT7601U Wireless Adapter
  • ID 148f:761a Ralink Technology, Corp. MT7610U ("Archer T2U" 2.4G+5G WLAN Adapter
  • ID 0e8d:7612 MediaTek Inc. MT7612U 802.11a/b/g/n/ac Wireless Adapter
  • ID 0b05:17d1 ASUSTek Computer, Inc. AC51 802.11a/b/g/n/ac Wireless Adapter [Mediatek MT7610U]
  • ID 7392:7710 Edimax Technology Co., Ltd Edimax Wi-Fi
  • ID 148f:3070 Ralink Technology, Corp. RT2870/RT3070 Wireless Adapter
  • ID 148f:5370 Ralink Technology, Corp. RT5370 Wireless Adapter
  • ID 148f:5572 Ralink Technology, Corp. RT5572 Wireless Adapter

Always verify the actual chipset with 'lsusb' and/or 'lspci'!

Due to a bug in xhci subsystem other devices may not work at the moment:
https://bugzilla.kernel.org/show_bug.cgi?id=202541

No support for a third party driver which is not part of the official kernel (https://www.kernel.org/)
Report related issues to the site, from which you downloaded the driver

No support for a driver which doesn't support ioctl() system calls and monitor and full frame injection, native
If you need this features, do a request on www.kernel.org

Not recommended WiFi chipsets due to driver problems:

  • Broadcom (neither monitor mode nor frame injection)
  • Intel PRO/Wireless (several driver issues and NETLINK dependency)
  • Realtek (driver chaos - some drivers working, some not, monitor mode and frame injection mostly only on third party drivers, often no ioctl() system call support, NETLINK dependency)
  • Atheros (some driver problems on older kernels)

more information about possible issues on https://bugzilla.kernel.org

Antennas

The best high frequency amplifier is a good antenna!

It is much better to achieve gain using a good antenna instead of increasing transmitter power.

VENDOR MODEL TYPE
LOGILINK WL0097 grid parabolic
TP-LINK TL-ANT2414 A/B panel
LevelOne WAN-1112 panel
DELOCK 88806 panel
TP-LINK TL-ANT2409 A panel

GPS devices (NMEA 0183 protocol)

VENDOR MODEL TYPE
NAVILOCK NL-701US USB
JENTRO BT-GPS-8 activepilot BLUETOOTH

Useful scripts

Script Description
bash_profile Autostart for Raspberry Pi (copy to /root/.bash_profile)
pireadcard Back up a Pi SD card
piwritecard Restore a Pi SD card
makemonnb Example script to activate monitor mode
killmonnb Example script to deactivate monitor mode

Hardware mod - see docs gpiowait.odg (hcxdumptool)

LED flashes 5 times if hcxdumptool successfully started

LED flashes every 5 seconds if everything is fine and signals are received

LED flashes twice, if no signal received during the last past 5 seconds

Press push button at least > 5 seconds until LED turns on (also LED turns on if hcxdumptool terminates)

Green ACT LED flashes 10 times

Raspberry Pi turned off and can be disconnected from power supply

Do not use hcxdumptool and hcxpioff together!

Hardware mod - see docs gpiowait.odg (hcxpioff)

LED flashes every 5 seconds 2 times if hcxpioff successfully started

Press push button at least > 5 seconds until LED turns on

Green ACT LED flashes 10 times

Raspberry Pi turned off safely and can be disconnected from power supply

Procedure

first run hcxdumptool -i interface --do_rcascan at least for 30 seconds

to determine that the driver support monitor mode and required ioctl() calls,

to determine that the driver support full packet injection,

to retrieve information about access points and

to determine which access points are in attack range.

pcapng option codes (Section Header Block)

ENTERPRISE NUMBER 0x2a, 0xce, 0x46, 0xa1

MAGIC NUMBER 0x2a, 0xce, 0x46, 0xa1, 0x79, 0xa0, 0x72, 0x33,

                     0x83, 0x37, 0x27, 0xab, 0x59, 0x33, 0xb3, 0x62,

                     0x45, 0x37, 0x11, 0x47, 0xa7, 0xcf, 0x32, 0x7f,

                     0x8d, 0x69, 0x80, 0xc0, 0x89, 0x5e, 0x5e, 0x98

OPTIONCODE_MACMYORIG 0xf29a (6 byte)

OPTIONCODE_MACMYAP 0xf29b (6 byte)

OPTIONCODE_RC 0xf29c (8 byte)

OPTIONCODE_ANONCE 0xf29d (32 byte)

OPTIONCODE_MACMYSTA 0xf29e (6 byte)

OPTIONCODE_SNONCE 0xf29f (32 byte)

OPTIONCODE_WEAKCANDIDATE 0xf2a0 (64 byte) == 63 characters + zero

OPTIONCODE_GPS 0xf2a1 (max 128 byte)

Warning

hcxdumptool is designed to be an analysis tool. This means that everything is requested/stored by default. Unwanted information must be filtered out by option/filter or later on (offline)!

You must use hcxdumptool only on networks you have permission to do this and if you know what you are doing, because:

  • hcxdumptool is able to prevent complete wlan traffic (depend on selected options)

  • hcxdumptool is able to capture PMKIDs from access points (only one single PMKID from an access point required) (use hcxpcapngtool to convert them to a format hashcat and/Or JtR understand)

  • hcxdumptool is able to capture handshakes from not connected clients (only one single M2 from the client is required) (use hcxpcapngtool to convert them to a format hashcat and/Or JtR understand)

  • hcxdumptool is able to capture handshakes from 5/6GHz clients on 2.4GHz (only one single M2 from the client is required) (use hcxpcapngtool to to a format hashcat and/Or JtR understand)

  • hcxdumptool is able to capture passwords from the wlan traffic (use hcxpcapngtool -E to save them to file, together with networknames)

  • hcxdumptool is able to request and capture extended EAPOL (RADIUS, GSM-SIM, WPS) (hcxpcapngtool will show you information about them)

  • hcxdumptool is able to capture identities from the wlan traffic (for example: request IMSI numbers from mobile phones - use hcxpcapngtool -I to save them to file)

  • hcxdumptool is able to capture usernames from the wlan traffic (for example: user name of a server authentication - use hcxpcapngtool -U to save them to file)

  • Do not use a logical interface and leave the physical interface in managed mode

  • Do not use hcxdumptool in combination with aircrack-ng, reaver, bully or other tools which take access to the interface

  • Stop all services which take access to the physical interface (NetworkManager, wpa_supplicant,...)

  • Do not use tools like macchanger, as they are useless, because hcxdumptool uses its own random mac address space