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Virtual devices (keyboard and mouse) implementation for macOS using DriverKit.

Supported systems

  • macOS 12 Monterey
    • Both Intel-based Macs and Apple Silicon Macs
  • macOS 11 Big Sur
    • Both Intel-based Macs and Apple Silicon Macs


  • Implemented:
    • Extension manager
    • Virtual HID keyboard
    • Virtual HID pointing
    • Virtual HID device client



  • System Preferences (macOS detects the virtual keyboard)

    System Preferences


  1. Open dist/Karabiner-DriverKit-VirtualHIDDevice-x.x.x.pkg.

  2. Install files via installer.

  3. Execute the following command in Terminal.

    /Applications/ activate
  4. Run a client program to test the driver extension.

    git clone --depth 1
    cd Karabiner-DriverKit-VirtualHIDDevice/examples/virtual-hid-device-service-client
    brew install xcodegen
    make run


  1. Run uninstaller in Terminal.

    bash '/Library/Application Support/org.pqrs/Karabiner-DriverKit-VirtualHIDDevice/scripts/uninstall/'
    sudo bash '/Library/Application Support/org.pqrs/Karabiner-DriverKit-VirtualHIDDevice/scripts/uninstall/'

Installed files

  • /Applications/
  • /Library/Application Support/org.pqrs/Karabiner-DriverKit-VirtualHIDDevice
  • /Library/LaunchDaemons/org.pqrs.Karabiner-DriverKit-VirtualHIDDeviceClient.plist
  • /Library/Application Support/org.pqrs/tmp
  • /var/log/karabiner

For developers

How to build

System requirements to build Karabiner-Elements:

  • macOS 11+
  • Xcode 13.0 (You need to hold Xcode version to 13.0 because Xcode 13.1 generate binary which does not work on macOS 11 Big Sur.)
  • Command Line Tools for Xcode
  • XcodeGen


A provisioning profile which supports is required to build a driver extension since Xcode 12.

If you want to start without a valid provisioning profile, use Xcode 11 and Karabiner-DriverKit-VirtualHIDDevice v0.11.0.


  1. Gain the DriverKit entitlements to be able to create a provisioning profile which supports Specifically, follow the instructions on Requesting Entitlements for DriverKit Development

    Note: This process may take some time to complete on Apple's end.

    If you want to start without the request, use Xcode 11 and Karabiner-DriverKit-VirtualHIDDevice v0.11.0. (See above note)

  2. Create a Developer ID distribution provisioning profile for org.pqrs.Karabiner-DriverKit-VirtualHIDDevice with entitlement.

    Generate a Provisioning Profile
  3. Replace CODE_SIGN_IDENTITY at src/scripts/ with yours.

    Find your codesign identity by executing the following command in Terminal.

    security find-identity -p codesigning -v

    The result is as follows.

    1) 8D660191481C98F5C56630847A6C39D95C166F22 "Developer ID Application: Fumihiko Takayama (G43BCU2T37)"
    2) 6B9AF0D3B3147A69C5E713773ADD9707CB3480D9 "Apple Development: Fumihiko Takayama (YVB3SM6ECS)"
    3) 637B86ED1C06AE99854E9F5A5DCE02DA58F2BBF4 "Mac Developer: Fumihiko Takayama (YVB3SM6ECS)"
    4) 987BC26C6474DF0C0AF8BEA797354873EC83DC96 "Apple Distribution: Fumihiko Takayama (G43BCU2T37)"
        4 valid identities found

    Choose one of them (e.g., 8D660191481C98F5C56630847A6C39D95C166F22) and replace existing CODE_SIGN_IDENTITY with yours as follows.

    # Replace with your identity
    readonly CODE_SIGN_IDENTITY=8D660191481C98F5C56630847A6C39D95C166F22
  4. Replace team identifier, domain and embedded.provisionprofile.

    • Search G43BCU2T37 and replace them with your team identifier.

      git grep G43BCU2T37 src/
    • Search org.pqrs and org_pqrs, then replace them with your domain.

      git grep org.pqrs src/
      git grep org_pqrs src/
    • Replace embedded.provisionprofile file with yours.

      find * -name 'embedded.provisionprofile'
  5. Build by the following command in terminal.

    make package

    dist/Karabiner-DriverKit-VirtualHIDDevice-X.X.X.pkg will be generated.


Karabiner-DriverKit-VirtualHIDDevice consists the following components.

  • Extension Manager (including DriverKit driver)
    • /Applications/
    • It provides a command line interface to activate or deactivate DriverKit driver.
  • VirtualHIDDeviceClient
    • /Library/Application Support/org.pqrs/Karabiner-DriverKit-VirtualHIDDevice/Applications/
    • It mediates between the client app and the driver.
    • It allows apps to communicate with the virtual device even if the app is not signed with's code signing identity. (The client app must be running with root privileges.)
  • Client apps
    • Client apps are not included in the distributed package.
    • For example, you can build the client app from examples/virtual-hid-device-service-client in this repository.
    • Client apps can send input events by communicating with VirtualHIDDeviceClient via UNIX domain socket. (/Library/Application Support/org.pqrs/tmp/rootonly/vhidd_server/*.sock)


Version files

  • version:
    • Karabiner-DriverKit-VirtualHIDDevice package version.
    • Increment when any components are updated.
  • driver-version:
    • DriverKit driver internal version.
    • Increment when the driver source code is updated.