android-ndk-r14 introduces "Unified Headers"  and is planned to be released late january/early february 2017 .
__ANDROID_API__ is not anymore defined in 'android/api-level.h' that is currently included by Include/pyport.h, and is passed instead with -D__ANDROID_API__=$API when compiling. And 'android/api-level.h' is now used to set the API level to 10000 as a Magic version number for a current development build when __ANDROID_API__ is not defined (see attached file).
Adoption of android-ndk-r14 should be made with the following changes:
Thanks for compiling up necessary changes for NDK r14! Seems that indicates future Python versions will require at least NDK r14 to build?
Another headache from unified headers is that it requires different --sysroot in compilation and linking. Currently setup.py/distutils does not cope with it well. See my dirty hack at  for an ad-hoc workaround.