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A curated list of awesome resources, learning materials, tools, frameworks, platforms, technologies and source code projects in the field of Compilers, Interpreters and Runtimes. This list has a bias towards education.




General Overview




Researchers and Institutes



Talks and Conferences





Community Discussions

Tools and Frameworks

Language Agnostic

  • B3: The Bare Bones Backend - WebKit's optimizing JIT Compiler for procedures containing C-like code.
  • Capstone - Lightweight multi-platform, multi-architecture disassembly framework with bindings to various famous programming languages.
  • Keystone - Lightweight multi-platform, multi-architecture assembler framework with bindings to various famous programming languages.
  • LLILCL - LLVM-based Compiler Backend for .NET Core.
  • LLVM - The LLVM Compiler-Backend Framework.
  • MicroVM - The "Mu" Framewrok for Programming Languages development based on the MuVM Specification.
  • Movfuscator Compiler - The M/o/Vfuscator compiles programs into "mov" instructions, and only "mov" instructions.
  • QBE: The Quick Backend - Pure C embeddable SSA-based compiler backend.
  • Rubinius - Programming Languages Development Platform.
  • Summus - Basic, reusable, compiler-frontend implementation using LLVM as a backend.
  • ZetaVM - Multi-Language Platform for Dynamic Programming Languages.

C / C++

  • AsmJIT - Complete x86/x64 JIT and Remote Assembler for C++.
  • GCC - The GNU Compiler Collection (C as a Backend).
  • LCC - The lcc retargetable ANSI C compiler (C as a Backend).
  • libFirm - C-library that provides a graph-based intermediate representation, optimizations, and assembly code generation suitable for use in compilers.
  • libJIT - Library for generic Just-In-Time compiler functionality independent of any particular bytecode, language, or runtime.
  • myJIT - Library for machine-code generation and execution at run-time.
  • OrangeC - Win32 C11/C++2014 compiler and toolchain.
  • PCC - The Portable C Compiler (C as a Backend).
  • Ragel - Ragel State Machine Compiler.
  • TCC - The Tiny C Compiler (C as a Backend).


  • Cecil - Library to generate and inspect programs and libraries in the ECMA CIL format.
  • DotNetPELib - Library to read and write .net assemblies in C++11
  • ILSpy - .NET Decompiler.
  • Reflector - .NET Decompiler.
  • Reflexil - Assembly code editor which can be used as a plugin with other .NET/CLR tools.


  • dunnart - LALR(1) Parser Generator.
  • FancyPars-lite - Fast parser generator.
  • libdparse - Library allowing to build lexers and parsers. Contains a lexer and a parser for the D language itself.
  • llvm-d - D bindings for LLVM.
  • Pegged - design, test and generate parsers for PEG grammars.


  • goyacc - YACC Implementation in Go. Standard LALR(1) parser generator.
  • LLVM Go binding - Official Go LLVM binding.


  • Graal - High-Performance Polyglot Runtime.
  • Graal Core - Compiler and Truffel Partial Evaluator.
  • Graal VM - Graal's multi-language VM distribution.



  • IRHudra - Tool for displaying intermediate representations used by V8 and Dart VM optimizing compilers.
  • JISON - Context-free grammar parser generator for JavaScript.
  • Nearley - Simple, fast, powerful parser toolkit for JavaScript.
  • Ohm - A library and language for building parsers, interpreters, compilers, etc.
  • PEG.js - Simple parser generator for JavaScript.


  • ANTLR - Parser generator for reading, processing, executing, or translating structured text or binary files.
  • BYAAC/J - BYACC/Java is an extension of the Berkeley v 1.8 YACC-compatible parser generator for Java.
  • CGLIB - High level API library for generating and transforming Java Byte Code.
  • FCP JVM - JVM Backend for generating Java Byte Code that conforms to the JDK v1.5+ Specification and the Dalvik VM.
  • JavaCC - Java Compiler Construction and Parser Generator Toolkit.
  • JavaCPP Presets for LLVM - Library for easily interacting with the LLVM API.
  • JFlex - JFlex is a lexical analyzer generator for Java with full Unicode support.
  • JLex - JLex is a lexical analyzer generator, that can be used in combination with CUP.



  • AST - Python's builtin Abstract Syntax Tree package.
  • Dis - Python's builtin Disassembler package.
  • Parsing - Pure-Python module that implements an LR(1) parser generator, as well as CFSM and GLR parser drivers.
  • PLY - Implementation of lex and yacc parsing tools for Python.
  • PyParsing - Alternative approach to creating and executing simple grammars, vs. the traditional lex/yacc approach, or the use of regular expressions.
  • RPLY - Port of the PLY project to RPython.
  • RPython - RPython is a framework for the implementatation of dynamic languages.

Lists of Python Parsing Tools


  • Combine - Parser Combinator Library for Rust.
  • IronLLVM - Safe LLVM bindings for Rust.
  • LALRPOP - LR(1) parser generator for Rust.
  • Nom - Parser Combinator Framework.
  • PEG - PEG Parser Generator.
  • Pest - PEG Parser Generator.
  • RLS - The Rust Language Server implementation (aka RLS).

Compilers and Interpreters

This section aims at listing code projects of Compilers, Interpreters, Translators, Runtimes, Virtual Machines and the like.

Serious Projects

Educational and Toy Projects

  • Akilang - A compiler for a simple language, built with Python and LLVM
  • amacc - Small C Compiler generating ELF executable for Arm architecture.
    • Discussions: HN.
  • Black - Scheme interpreter for the Reflective Programming Language "Black", by Kenichi Asai's.
  • C4 - C Lang in 4 Functions.
    • Discussions: HN.
  • CarpVM - Experimental VM implementation in C.
  • Charly - Interpreter for a dynamically typed language written in Crystal.
  • Dale - Lisp-flavoured C: a system programming language.
  • EasyLang - Easy Programming Language / VM.
  • Eschelle - Open source cross platform multi-paradigm language with VM & JIT
  • Gecho - Simple-stack language implementation in C.
  • gocaml - Minimal functional programming language implementation in Go and LLVM.
  • gone - Compiler for a tiny programming language called Gone, implemented using Python 3.6, SLY and llvmlite. Developed as part of the January 2018 Write a compiler course, under the supervision of David Beazly.
  • Hython - Haskell-powered Python 3 interpreter.
  • llgo - Go frontend for LLVM written in Go.
  • MAL: Make a Lisp - Clojure-inspired Lisp interpreter implemented in 64 languages.
  • MetaScala - Metacircular JVM implementation in Scala.
  • mini-js - Experimental self-hosted JavaScript compiler in 1K LoC.
  • MunVM - Lua VM & Compiler in C.
  • MY-BASIC - An embeddable BASIC dialect interpreter in C with modern paradigms.
  • oberonc - A single pass, self-hosting compiler for the Oberon-07 programming language. It targets the JVM.
  • Poprc - Compiler for the Popr Language.
  • PyCOOLC - Compiler for the COOL Programming Language written in Python 3.
  • RabbitVM - RISC-based VM implementation in C.
  • Squint - A peephole optimizer for educational compilers generating stack based assembly.
  • StackVM - Virtual Machine with an integrated VRAM display.
  • stack_cpu - Stack-machine simulator.
  • The Super Tiny Compiler - Tiny educational compiler project in JavaScript.
    • Discussions: HN.
  • tinyc.c - Tiny-C language compiler in C.
  • tisp - "Time is Space" Programming Language Interpreter.
  • Ultra Tiny Compiler - Another tiny compiler in less then 90 lines of code.

Runtimes and VMs



  • /r/Compilers - Subreddit community about the theory and development of compilers.
  • /r/ProgrammingLanguages - Subreddit community that is dedicated to discussion of programming languages, programming language theory, design, their syntax and compilers.





To the extent possible under law, Ahmad Alhour has waived all copyright and related or neighboring rights to this work.

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