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Probiotics

MaximilianKohler edited this page Aug 20, 2019 · 14 revisions

Work in progress, feel free to help improve it!


General:

Intro/guide for probiotic supplementation: http://HumanMicrobiome.info/Probiotic-Guide - additional links here.

Review, 2019: Probiotics in Extraintestinal Diseases: Current Trends and New Directions https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/11/4/788/htm

"As stated before, the ability to adhere and colonize the intestine highly depends on the specific bacterial strain tested, and this is the reason for many conflicting data about fecal recovery of probiotic bacteria." -A Consumer’s Guide for Probiotics: 10 Golden Rules for a Correct Use

The vast majority of probiotics do not colonize (2001): http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/73/2/399s.full | Some do in some people: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chom.2016.09.001 - https://archive.is/BLZzv

Recent (7-22-2016) study that refutes the claim that probiotics have no affect on the intestinal microbial ecosystem of healthy adults: http://aem.asm.org/content/early/2016/07/18/AEM.01753-16.abstract || Same result with b.infantis 35624 (Align): http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.4161/gmic.24196 || Related study: No differences to bowel movements, stool consistency or microbiota composition. But they did affect the fecal molecular profile (2018): http://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/10/2/195/htm | Another 2018 one: http://www.jnmjournal.org/journal/view.html?uid=1404&vmd=Full& Effects of the Administration of Probiotics on Fecal Microbiota Diversity and Composition in Healthy Individuals. The proportion of fecal microbiota at the genus level is significantly altered by the administration of probiotics.

"The probiotic treatment significantly altered the fecal microbiota, but taxonomic analyses showed no direct association between ingestion of probiotic bacteria and their abundance in fecal microbiota. These results suggest that probiotics indirectly alter the intestinal microenvironment" (2018): https://www.biorxiv.org/content/biorxiv/early/2018/04/20/304956.full.pdf

Even heat-killed bacteria can have an impact [1][2][3][4][5][6].

2017 update to the 2015 Yale probiotic workshop: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gtc.2017.09.011

Site run by a nutritionist that seems quite good: http://www.powerofprobiotics.com/Probiotic-supplements.html


Consume probiotics with meal or prior to meal [1][2][3][4]. Calcium phosphate absorbs bile acids and increases probiotic survivability. Calcium carbonate does not: http://www.wageningenacademic.com/doi/pdf/10.3920/BM2014.0168

The underexposed role of food matrices in probiotic products: Reviewing the relationship between carrier matrices and product parameters. (2017): https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28609116

CFU counts in supplements vs fermented foods: https://archive.is/bUJFR

Mixtures more effective than its component strains separately: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21229254http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22677262

Most probiotics are labeled inaccurately: https://archive.is/wmEN6

Mechanisms:

Review, 2019: Mechanisms and immunomodulatory properties of pre- and probiotics https://www.wageningenacademic.com/doi/abs/10.3920/BM2018.0066

Probiotics can alleviate depression induced by constipation through protecting neuronal health via activation of the AKT signaling pathway (2018): https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11011-018-0269-4

"increased Bacteroidetes to Firmicutes ratio and elevated abundance of the bacterial family S24-7 (Bacteroidetes), which is known to be associated with butyrate and propanoate production. Altered the intestinal metabolic pathways associated with propanoate and butanoate in the mice. Gene ontology analysis also revealed influencing of many physiological functions related to the defense response. The profiles of various genes associated with antimicrobial peptides-, tight junctions-, adherens junctions- and mucus-associated intestinal barrier functions were also drastically altered" (2018, mice): https://academic.oup.com/intimm/advance-article/doi/10.1093/intimm/dxy035/4996080

Distinct effects of GG and C59 on gene expression in the intact small intestine provide clues to understand how the health beneficial effects of specific strains of probiotic bacteria are mediated by interactions with intestinal cells http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0188985

Four common probiotics related products obviously inhibited human colonic smooth muscles strips contraction in a dose-dependent manner. http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0189257

"redox changes in over 450 proteins, many of which are implicated to function in cellular processes such as endosomal trafficking, epithelial cell junctions, barrier integrity, and cytoskeleton maintenance and formation" (2018): https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S221323171830805X

Lactobacillus reuteri HCM2 protects mice against Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli through modulation of gut microbiota (2018): https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-018-35702-y

Eczema-protective probiotic alters infant gut microbiome functional capacity but not composition: sub-sample analysis from a RCT (2018): https://www.wageningenacademic.com/doi/abs/10.3920/BM2017.0191

Pathogen (Staphylococcus aureus) elimination by probiotic Bacillus via signalling interference (2018): https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-018-0616-y

New lactic acid bacteria for skin health via oral intake of heat‐killed or live cells (2018): https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6001785/ "The deduced mechanisms associated with the beneficial effects of strain H61 are also discussed"

Antidepressant-like activities of live and heat-killed Lactobacillus paracasei PS23 in chronic corticosterone-treated mice and possible mechanisms (2019): https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2019.01.025

Interplay with immune system:

Beneficial Effects of Probiotic Consumption on the Immune System (2019): https://doi.org/10.1159/000496426

Probiotics importance and their immunomodulatory properties (2018): https://doi.org/10.1002/jcp.27559

Bacteria in fermented food signal the human immune system https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2019-05/p-bif051519.php. Metabolites of lactic acid bacteria present in fermented foods are highly potent agonists of human hydroxycarboxylic acid receptor 3 (May 2019) https://journals.plos.org/plosgenetics/article?id=10.1371/journal.pgen.1008145

We found that VSL#3 administration did not lead to any changes in gut flora, but led to a reduction in the frequency of Th17 cells and in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokine on lipopolysaccharide stimulation. These findings suggest that the beneficial anti-inflammatory effect of this preparation in patients with autoimmune and allergic disorders may be related to reduced production of monocyte-derived cytokines rather than to changes in the composition of gut microbiota. (2018): https://bmcgastroenterol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12876-018-0819-6

Oral Administration of Probiotics Increases Paneth Cells and Intestinal Antimicrobial Activity (2018): https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmicb.2018.00736/full

The analysis of a wide range of immune factors in faecal samples suggests a modulatory effect by these three probiotic strains during the intervention period (2018): https://www.wageningenacademic.com/doi/10.3920/BM2017.0132

Influence of monostrain and multistrain probiotics on immunity, intestinal ultrastructure and microbiota in experimental dysbiosis (2018, rats): https://www.wageningenacademic.com/doi/abs/10.3920/BM2017.0117

Oral supplementation of B. longum strain BR-108 alters cecal microbiota by stimulating gut immune system in mice. Study demonstrated that the effect of heat-killed BR-108 on the mouse cecal microbiota is similar to that of viable BR-108, most likely due to stimulation of the gut immune system https://archive.fo/QKS0V


Harms/safety:

Review, 2018: Harms Reporting in Probiotics, Prebiotics, and Synbiotics Trials "Harms reporting is often lacking or inadequate. We cannot broadly conclude that these interventions are safe without reporting safety data." http://annals.org/aim/article-abstract/2687953/harms-reporting-randomized-controlled-trials-interventions-aimed-modifying-microbiota-systematic

Probiotic Safety—No Guarantees (viewpoint, Dec 2018): https://sci-hub.tw/https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamainternalmedicine/article-abstract/2702973

Review, 2019: Probiotics: If It Does Not Help It Does Not Do Any Harm. Really? https://www.mdpi.com/2076-2607/7/4/104 "review describes the dark side of the probiotics, in terms of problematic research design, incomplete reporting, lack of transparency, and under-reported safety. Highlighted are the potential virulent factors and the mode of action in the intestinal lumen, risking the physiological microbiome equilibrium. Finally, regulatory topics are discussed"

Pathogenic relevance of Lactobacillus: a retrospective review of over 200 cases (2005). Lactobacillus was found to be frequently associated with endocarditis and bacteremia. Lactobacillus was also associated with a variety of other infections including, but not limited to, peritonitis, abscesses, and meningitis. The species casei and rhamnosus were the most common. The overall mortality rate was nearly 30%. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10096-004-1253-y

L. reuteri exacerbates TLR7-dependent lupus in conventional and germ-free mice (2018): https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chom.2018.11.009

Probiotics associated with a higher rate of c.diff recurrence (Oct 2017): http://www.mdmag.com/medical-news/secondary-prophylaxis-did-not-significantly-reduce-cdi-rates

Probiotics (multi strain) enhance susceptibility of mice to cryptosporidiosis (2018): https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.01408-18

Mothers self-administering probiotics during breastfeeding, as well as directly to their infants, with either random/general probiotics, or BioGaia, resulted in poorer health outcomes and suggests that probiotic exposure during infancy has limited effects on gut microbial composition yet is associated with increased infection later in life. (2018): https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-018-26423-3

Consuming probiotics as a counterbalance to any antibiotics being taken could delay normal gut bacteria returning to their original state (2018): https://newatlas.com/gut-microbiota-probiotics-effects/56231/

Saccharomyces cerevisiae exacerbated intestinal disease in a mouse model of colitis and increased gut barrier permeability: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28275154

Multi-species, Lactobacillus & Bifidobacteria probiotic causes more deaths than placebo in acute pancreatitis study: https://archive.is/A0088

As density of L. reuteri DSM 17938 (BioGaia) was associated with increased crying time, L. reuteri supplementation may not be an appropriate treatment for all infants with colic. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-017-15404-7

Some common genera & species used in probiotics are already elevated in some disease states: (2017) https://academic.oup.com/femsec/article-abstract/doi/10.1093/femsec/fix153/4604777 || (2014) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3911339/

Probiotic supplementation (VSL#3) increases obesity with no detectable effects on liver fat or gut microbiota in obese Hispanic adolescents: a 16-week, randomized, placebo-controlled trial (2018): https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29493105

Case report of fungemia in a patient with Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea (CDAD) treated orally with S. boulardii (Codex (Zambon Farmaceutici, Vicenza, Italy)) in association with vancomycin (2014): http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/039463201402700120

Seven cases of Saccharomyces fungaemia related to use of probiotics, India (2017): https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/myc.12604

Eating a lot of fiber could improve some cancer treatments. The same can’t be said for taking probiotics. Probiotic and antibiotic use associated with lower diversity https://www.sciencenews.org/article/eating-lot-fiber-could-improve-some-cancer-treatments. The gut microbiome (GM) and immunotherapy response are influenced by host lifestyle factors (Mar 2019).


Prescript-assist soil based, spore-forming probiotics: http://www.thecandidadiet.com/soil-based-organisms/ - https://www.amazon.com/review/R1UA8D182MJAIJ (WARNING)

More bad experiences: https://archive.fo/L0R2J

More warnings about soil bacteria:

http://fixyourgut.com/hsos-part-7-why-i-do-not-recommend-megaspore-or-my-issue-with-bacillus-licheniformis/

https://www.hyperbiotics.com/blogs/recent-articles/15994079-the-problem-with-soil-based-organisms-sbos-as-probiotics

http://www.powerofprobiotics.com/MegaSporeBiotic.html


D-Lactate/D-lactic acid producing bacteria/probiotics can cause problems for some people: https://archive.is/YwnNz | Like CFS patients: http://iv.iiarjournals.org/content/23/4/621.long

D-Lactic acidosis: Popular probiotic (L. acidophilus) may induce neurotoxicity: http://www.mommypotamus.com/popular-probiotic-strain-may-induce-neurotoxicity/

D-Lactate free probiotics:

http://fixyourgut.com/why-supplementing-with-probiotics-may-make-you-ill-part-4-d-lactate

GutPro and Custom probiotics: https://archive.is/d6LB0

D-lactic acidosis PDF with list of D & L lactic acid producers: https://www.pdf-archive.com/2016/12/16/d-lactate-values-dr-lord/d-lactate-values-dr-lord.pdf

Brain fogginess, gas and bloating: a link between SIBO, probiotics and metabolic acidosis (2018): https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6006167/ A strong rebuttal: ‘Brain Fogginess’ and D-Lactic Acidosis: Probiotics Are Not the Cause (2018): https://www.nature.com/articles/s41424-018-0057-9

But the right probiotics can also eliminate D-Lactic acidosis, even when antibiotics cannot: D-lactic Acidosis: Successful Suppression of D-lactate–Producing Lactobacillus by Probiotics (2018): https://sci-hub.tw/https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2018-0337 The strains used were L. GG, B. Lactis BS01, B. Breve BR03, B. Longum BL03. Found in this product: https://web.archive.org/web/20180902124727/https://www.spectrumceuticals.net/product/pro4-50-d-lactate-free-multistrain-probiotic-30-capsules/


Why Supplementing With Probiotics May Make You Ill – Part 5: Th1 / Th2 Immune Reactions: http://fixyourgut.com/why-supplementing-with-probiotics-may-make-you-ill-part-5-th1-th2-immune-reactions/

Lactobacillus casei, Histamine Producer or Probiotic? http://www.powerofprobiotics.com/Lactobacillus-casei.html

List of histamine-producing bacteria (p 9/13): http://www.allergynutrition.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/05/Histamine-DAO-and-Probiotics-Revised.pdf

Probiotics that lower histamine: https://web.archive.org/web/20150311195251/http://thelowhistaminechef.com/these-probiotic-strains-lower-histamine-rather-than-raising-it

Screening selected strains of probiotic lactic acid bacteria for their ability to produce biogenic amines (histamine and tyramine) (2011) https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1365-2621.2011.02717.x "This study confirmed that BA formation is strain dependent and not related to the species"

Fermented foods:

Commercially available kefir ineffective for antibiotic-associated diarrhea (2009): https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamapediatrics/fullarticle/382013

Probiotic potential and biochemical and technological properties of Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis strains isolated from raw milk and kefir grains (2019): https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30391179 "these strains did not possess all of the properties required to meet the definition of a probiotic"

Benefits:

Mental health: See mental health section.

Vaginal health: See vagina section.

Allergies: See allergies section.

Consumption of a Fermented Milk Product Containing Bifidobacterium lactis CNCM I-2494 in Women Complaining of Minor Digestive Symptoms: Rapid Response Which Is Independent of Dietary Fibre Intake or Physical Activity (Jan 2019): https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/11/1/92/htm - https://www.gutmicrobiotaforhealth.com/en/how-to-take-care-of-your-digestive-health-a-new-study-shows-that-regular-fermented-milk-consumption-can-improve-mild-digestive-symptoms/

Yogurt improves insulin resistance and liver fat in obese women with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and metabolic syndrome: a randomized controlled trial (May 2019, n=100) https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article-abstract/109/6/1611/5499357

Kefir:

Review, 2013: Microbiological, technological and therapeutic properties of kefir: a natural probiotic beverage: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3833126/

Review, 2016: The Microbiota and Health Promoting Characteristics of the Fermented Beverage Kefir: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4854945/

Review, 2017: Milk kefir: nutritional, microbiological and health benefits: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954422416000275 "A large proportion of the studies that support these findings were conducted in vitro or in animal models"

Review, 2018: Modern perspectives on the health benefits of kefir in next generation sequencing era: Improvement of the host gut microbiota: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10408398.2018.1428168 "significant and wide-spectrum modulatory effects on the host gut microbiota"

Detriments:

Administration of probiotic kefir to mice with Clostridium difficile infection exacerbates disease http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1075996416300610

Lacto-Fermented Foods Linked to Esophageal & Stomach Cancer: https://www.drcarney.com/blog/entry/lacto-fermented-foods-linked-to-esophageal-cancer - https://www.swisshillsferments.com/does-kimchi-cause-stomach-cancer-a-look-at-the-dark-side-of-ferments-part-1/

Epidemiological evidence that kimchi consumption may significantly increase cancer risk: https://nutritionfacts.org/video/is-kimchi-good-for-you/

Kimchi and sauerkraut contain carcinogenic putrescine: https://nutritionfacts.org/video/carcinogenic-putrescine/

A Case of Kombucha Tea Toxicity (2009): https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0885066609332963 "Several case reports exist of serious, and sometimes fatal, hepatic dysfunction and lactic acidosis within close proximity to ingestion"

Bacterial and fungal microbiota of spontaneously fermented Chinese products, Rubing milk cake and Yan-cai vegetable pickles https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0740002017306810 "results suggest that some of these traditional foods are undesirable as ready-to-eat (RTE) foods, even when these are typical lactic acid fermented foods"

Conditions:

Allergies:

Probiotic gives long-standing protection against childhood eczema, study finds. https://www.otago.ac.nz/news/news/otago701886.html - Effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 in early life on the cumulative prevalence of allergic disease to 11 years (2018): https://doi.org/10.1111/pai.12982

Probiotic B. longum KACC 91563 has ability to reduce effects of food allergies: http://www.news-medical.net/news/20160316/Research-shows-probiotic-B-longum-KACC-91563-has-ability-to-reduce-effects-of-food-allergies.aspx

Bifidobacterium Infantis showed significant protective effect on food allergic mice: http://www.ajtr.org/files/ajtr0035123.pdf

2015 Australian study shows "Lactobacillus rhamnosus CGMCC 1.3724" cures peanut allergy in 80% of children: https://archive.fo/zsQG7

Lactobacillus gasseri KS-13, Bifidobacterium bifidum G9-1, and Bifidobacterium longum MM-2 improve rhinoconjunctivitis-specific quality of life in individuals with seasonal allergies: https://examine.com/nutrition/do-probiotics-improve-quality-of-life-in-seasonal-allergies/

Experimental and clinical evidence has shown that probiotics significantly modulate immune responses and thus suppress allergic reactions http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10408398.2016.1269719

Allergic diseases and probiotics, Jun Kim Ph.D. https://medium.com/@thryve/allergic-diseases-and-probiotics-d258ae5206b6

Fermented foods:

The Antiallergic Effect of [heat-killed] Kefir Lactobacilli (Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens M1) (2010, mice): https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1750-3841.2010.01787.x

C. difficile

Studies offer conflicting evidence on probiotics for CDI prevention (July 2019) https://www.healio.com/pediatrics/gastrointestinal-conditions/news/print/infectious-diseases-in-children/%7B3ee0068e-5691-4bb0-985c-de1f91a751b5%7D/studies-offer-conflicting-evidence-on-probiotics-for-cdi-prevention

Probiotics associated with a higher rate of c.diff recurrence (Oct 2017): http://www.mdmag.com/medical-news/secondary-prophylaxis-did-not-significantly-reduce-cdi-rates

IBS:

Probiotics appear to be efficacious in IBS, but the magnitude of benefit and the most effective species and strain are uncertain. A systematic review: http://gut.bmj.com/content/59/3/325.short

Consumption of a probiotic drink containing L casei, L bulgaricus, and S thermophilus can reduce the incidence of antibiotic associated diarrhoea and C difficile associated diarrhoea. http://www.bmj.com/content/335/7610/80

Multi-species trial shows effective for IBS: http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/818812_3

Lactose tolerance:

The prebiotic GOS improved lactose tolerance: http://www.pnas.org/content/114/3/E367.full

Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG helps increase tolerance to cow's milk in some children: http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/299817.php

Lacto-Freedom's Proprietary L. acidophilus strain claims to end lactose intolerance: https://www.lactofreedom.com/about-lacto-freedom - https://www.amazon.com/Manzo-Pharmaceuticals-LLC-Lacto-Freedom-Probiotic/dp/B01HU4YOHS

Mental health:

Review, 2018: Fermented foods, the gut and mental health: a mechanistic overview with implications for depression and anxiety https://doi.org/10.1080/1028415X.2018.1544332 "in humans, the literature relating to the relevance of fermented food for treating or preventing depression and anxiety is sparse, heterogeneous and has significant limitations"

Review, 2016: Probiotic supplementation can positively affect anxiety and depressive symptoms: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0271531716301154

Effects of Lactobacillus plantarum PS128 on Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Taiwan: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial (April 2019): https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/11/4/820 "ameliorated opposition/defiance behaviors, and that the total score of SNAP-IV for younger children (aged 712) improved significantly compared with the placebo group. Additionally, several elements were also notably improved"

Decreased social anxiety among young adults who eat fermented foods (2015): https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/06/150609092803.htm

Consumption of Fermented Milk Product With Probiotic Modulates Brain Activity (2013): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3839572/

Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota decreases anxiety symptoms but not depression symptoms in people with CFS: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2664325/ A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study of a probiotic in emotional symptoms of chronic fatigue syndrome (2009).

The anxiolytic effect of Bifidobacterium longum NCC3001 involves vagal pathways for gut-brain communication: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21988661

Noninvasive parasite Trichuris muris caused mild to moderate colonic inflammation and anxiety-like behavior. Bifidobacterium longum normalized behavior and BDNF mRNA but did not affect cytokine or kynurenine levels: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20600016

Amelioration of gastrointestinal inflammation by treatment with probiotics including L. johnsonii can alleviate anxiety (mice, 2018): https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-018-31764-0 Immobilization stress-induced Escherichia coli causes anxiety by inducing NF-?B activation through gut microbiota disturbance

Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis: "supplementation with probiotics resulted in a statistically significant improvement in psychological symptoms compared with placebo" http://online.liebertpub.com/doi/abs/10.1089/acm.2016.0023

Bifidobacteria exert strain-specific effects on stress-related behavior and physiology in BALB/c mice: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25251188

Effects of the probiotic Bifidobacterium infantis in the maternal separation model of depression: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20696216

Probiotic Bifidobacterium longum NCC3001 (BB536) Reduces Depression Scores and Alters Brain Activity: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0016508517355579 - https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28483500

Bifidobacterium longum 1714 as a translational psychobiotic: modulation of stress, electrophysiology and neurocognition in healthy volunteers: http://www.nature.com/tp/journal/v6/n11/full/tp2016191a.html

Ingestion of Lactobacillus strain regulates emotional behavior and central GABA receptor expression in a mouse via the vagus nerve: http://www.pnas.org/content/108/38/16050.long

Oral treatment with Lactobacillus rhamnosus (JB-1) attenuates behavioural deficits and immune changes in chronic social stress: https://bmcmedicine.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12916-016-0771-7

Lactobacillus reuteri MM4-1A (ATCC-PTA-6475) Reverses Maternal Diet-Induced Social and Synaptic Deficits in Offspring: http://www.cell.com/cell/fulltext/S0092-8674(16)30730-9

Daily intake of Lactobacillus gasseri CP2305 improves mental, physical, and sleep quality among Japanese medical students enrolled in a cadaver dissection course: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1756464617300543

People focus less on bad feelings and experiences from the past (i.e. rumination) after four weeks of probiotics administration: https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/04/150414083718.htm

Prebiotic intake reduces the waking cortisol response and alters emotional bias in healthy volunteers: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25449699

Prebiotic administration normalizes lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced anxiety and cortical 5-HT2A receptor and IL1-ß levels in male mice: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26476141

Prebiotic feeding elevates central brain derived neurotrophic factor, N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subunits and d-serine: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3858812/

A randomized controlled trial to test the effect of multispecies probiotics on cognitive reactivity to sad mood: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25862297

Effect of Probiotic Supplementation on Cognitive Function and Metabolic Status in Alzheimer's Disease: A Randomized, Double-Blind and Controlled Trial http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fnagi.2016.00256/full

Adjunctive probiotic microorganisms (L. GG and Bb12) to prevent rehospitalization in patients with acute mania: A randomized controlled trial. (2018): https://doi.org/10.1111/bdi.12652 "During the 24-week observation period there were a total of 24 rehospitalizations in the 33 individuals who received placebo and eight rehospitalizations in the 33 individuals who received the probiotics"

Early-life stress, microbiota, and brain development: Probiotics (Lactobacillus rhamnosus R0011 and Lactobacillus helveticus R0052) reverse the effects of maternal separation on neural circuits underpinning fear expression and extinction in infant rats (2019): https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1878929318303037

Lactobacillus helveticus R0052 and Bifidobacterium longum R0175 combo:

Assessment of psychotropic-like properties of a probiotic formulation (Lactobacillus helveticus R0052 and Bifidobacterium longum R0175) in rats and human subjects (2010): https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114510004319

Beneficial psychological effects of a probiotic formulation (Lactobacillus helveticus R0052 and Bifidobacterium longum R0175) in healthy human volunteers (2011): http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.4161/gmic.2.4.16108

Combination of Lactobacillus helveticus R0052 and Bifidobacterium longum R0175 reduces post-myocardial infarction depression symptoms and restores intestinal permeability in a rat model (2011): https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114511005137

Probiotic mixture of Lactobacillus helveticus R0052 and Bifidobacterium longum R0175 attenuates hippocampal apoptosis induced by lipopolysaccharide in rats (2018): https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10123-018-00051-3 "suggest that this probiotic could play a beneficial role in some neurodegenerative conditions"

Effect of probiotic and prebiotic vs placebo on psychological outcomes in patients with major depressive disorder: A randomized clinical trial (2018): https://www.clinicalnutritionjournal.com/article/S0261-5614(18)30161-4/fulltext - significant improvements with L. helveticus R0052 and B. longum R0175 (CNCM strain I-3470), but not GOS.

Where to buy: http://naturalfactors.com/product/calmbiotic (NO potato starch) -http://www.lifeextension.com/Vitamins-Supplements/item02000/FLORASSIST-Mood (contains potato starch) - https://www.xymogen.com/formulas/products/102 (contains potato starch) - https://innovixlabs.com/products/mood-probiotic/ (contains potato starch). I'd recommend trying the product without potato starch first.

Vagina:

Evidence-based mixture containing Lactobacillus strains (acidophilus GLA-14 and rhamnosus HN001) and lactoferrin to prevent recurrent bacterial vaginosis: a double blind, placebo controlled, randomised clinical trial (Dec 2018) https://www.wageningenacademic.com/doi/abs/10.3920/BM2018.0075 "symptoms were significantly improved"

Efficacy of Lactobacillus Rhamnosus GR-1 and of Lactobacillus Reuteri RC-14 in the treatment and prevention of vaginoses and bacterial vaginitis relapses (2008): https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18854803 "results showed that 92% of the enrolled patients benefited from the treatment". 46 patients, taken orally.

Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and L. reuteri RC-14 to prevent or cure bacterial vaginosis among women with HIV. (2010): https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20801446 "Supplementation of probiotic L. rhamnosus GR-1 and L. reuteri RC-14 did not enhance the cure of BV among women living with HIV, but may prevent the condition among this population." 65 women.

Ingestion of yogurt containing Lactobacillus acidophilus as prophylaxis for candidal vaginitis (1992): https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1736766 "Daily ingestion of 8 ounces of yogurt containing Lactobacillus acidophilus decreased both candidal colonization and infection"

Ingestion of yogurt containing Lactobacillus acidophilus compared with pasteurized yogurt as prophylaxis for recurrent candidal vaginitis and bacterial vaginosis (1996): https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8930233 "We concluded that daily ingestion of 150 mL of yogurt, enriched with live L acidophilus, was associated with an increased prevalence of colonization of the rectum and vagina by the bacteria, and this ingestion of yogurt may have reduced episodes of BV"

Intravaginal:

The Comparison of vaginal cream of mixing yogurt, honey and clotrimazole on symptoms of vaginal candidiasis. (2015): https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4803919 "Inside the vagina for 7 nights. This study indicated that the therapeutic effects of vaginal cream, yogurt and honey is not only similar with clotrimazole vaginal cream but is more effective in relieving some symptoms of vaginal candidiasis"

Bacterial vaginosis in pregnancy treated with yoghurt (1993): https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8382424 "Intravaginal application of commercial yoghurt. 7 days. Result was favorable; may be preferable to any other treatment. (A) yoghurt (n = 32) and (B) acetic acid tampon (n = 32), controls (n = 20)"

Weight:

Probiotic With or Without Fiber Controls Body Fat Mass, Associated With Serum Zonulin, in Overweight and Obese Adults—Randomized Controlled Trial: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2352396416304972

The administration of Lactobacillus gasseri was shown to decrease fat mass (visceral and subcutaneous) and body mass index in obese and type 2 diabetic patients[71]. In a double blind randomized study, the administration of Lactobacillus spp. was shown to preserve insulin sensitivity, whereas it decreased in the placebo group[72]. Amar et al. conducted a 1-month probiotic treatment with Bifidobacterium animalis (strain B420), which resulted in decreased bacterial translocation and improved insulin sensitivity, suggesting that certain probiotic interventions can reverse the adverse metabolic phenotype induced by a high-fat diet[30]. http://www.besjournal.com/Articles/Archive/2015/No11/201512/t20151218_123660.html

Probiotic supplementation (VSL#3) increases obesity with no detectable effects on liver fat or gut microbiota in obese Hispanic adolescents: a 16-week, randomized, placebo-controlled trial (2018): https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29493105

Bifidobacteria attenuate the development of metabolic disorders, with inter- and intra-species differences (2018) "B. adolescentis Z25 displayed an outstanding ability to alleviate metabolic syndrome, including glucose and lipid metabolism disorders, tissue damage and gut microbiota dysbiosis" http://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2018/fo/c8fo00100f/unauth#!divAbstract

Other:

Review, Mar 2019: Importance of probiotics in the prevention and treatment of colorectal cancer https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/jcp.28473 "Research in clinical trials encouraging findings that support a role of probiotics in CRC prevention and improve the safety and effectiveness of cancer therapy even though additional clinical research is still necessary"

Review, May 2019: Changing our microbiome: Probiotics in dermatology https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/bjd.18088

Probiotics affecting cancer & inflammation in mice: http://medicalxpress.com/news/2016-02-probiotics-modulate-liver-cancer-growth.html - http://www.pnas.org/content/113/9/E1306.abstract

Lactobacillus salivarius Isolated from Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis Suppresses Collagen-Induced Arthritis and Increases Treg Frequency in Mice http://online.liebertpub.com/doi/10.1089/jir.2016.0057

Probiotics restore bowel flora and improve liver enzymes in human alcohol-induced liver injury: a pilot study http://www.alcoholjournal.org/article/S0741-8329(08)00301-7/abstract

Acne vulgaris, probiotics and the gut-brain-skin axis - back to the future? http://gutpathogens.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1757-4749-3-1

Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC strain 202195 + FOS synbiotic reduces sepsis risk by 40%, reduced the risk of infections by both the major groups of bacteria: the Gram-positives, by 82 percent; and the Gram-negatives, which are harder to treat with antibiotics, by 75 percent. It even reduced the risk of pneumonia and other infections of the airways by 34 percent. https://archive.fo/oJvvP

Lactobacillus reuteri 6475 (BioGaia) can protect the skeletons of older women. The women who received the powder with active bacteria had lost only half as much bone in the skeleton compared with those who received inactive powders (2018): https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/06/180621101329.htm

Probiotic Bifidobacterium lactis V9 Regulates the Secretion of Sex Hormones in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Patients through the Gut-Brain Axis (April 2019) https://msystems.asm.org/content/4/2/e00017-19


Strain-specific:

Note: I stopped adding to this section as there would simply be way too many listings (thousands).

Over 800 studies done on Lactobacillus GG; summary of studies: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lactobacillus_rhamnosus#Lactobacillus_rhamnosus_GG_.28ATCC_53103.29 - https://microbewiki.kenyon.edu/index.php/Lactobacillus_rhamnosus_GG_(ATCC_53103)_and_its_Probiotic_Use

Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG helps increase tolerance to cow's milk in some children: http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/299817.php

Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG Intake Modifies Preschool Children’s Intestinal Microbiota, Alleviates Penicillin-Associated Changes, and Reduces Antibiotic Use: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0154012

Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and prebiotic prevent neonatal inflammation-induced visceral hypersensitivity in adult rats: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25298006

L.Reuteri ATCC 6475 Sustains Youthful Serum Testosterone Levels and Testicular Size in Aging Mice http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0084877 and much more: https://archive.is/O6Fee

L. reuteri NCIMB 30242 increases mean circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23609838

Probiotic B. longum KACC 91563 has ability to reduce effects of food allergies: http://www.news-medical.net/news/20160316/Research-shows-probiotic-B-longum-KACC-91563-has-ability-to-reduce-effects-of-food-allergies.aspx

Lactobacillus plantarum TWK10 Supplementation Improves Exercise Performance and Increases Muscle Mass in Mice http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4848674/

Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC strain 202195 + FOS synbiotic reduces sepsis risk by 40%, reduced the risk of infections by both the major groups of bacteria: the Gram-positives, by 82 percent; and the Gram-negatives, which are harder to treat with antibiotics, by 75 percent. It even reduced the risk of pneumonia and other infections of the airways by 34 percent. https://archive.fo/oJvvP

B. thermophilum RBL67 inhibits rotavirus infection: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0164512

Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086 Increases Protein and Amino Acid Absorption http://www.prweb.com/releases/2012/5/prweb9517807.htm - http://www.nutritionaloutlook.com/digestive-health/ganeden%E2%80%99s-bc30-probiotic-aids-plant-protein-digestion-study-suggests

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