The gut microbiome's systemic impacts.
Including other body site's microbiomes.
"These results indicate that the commensal mycobiome may be a crucial factor in gut and systemic immunological disorders, based on systemic diffusion of either cytokines, fungal products or metabolites, or micromycetous translocation" (2018): http://www.mdpi.com/2076-2607/6/1/22/htm
Due to intestinal wall inflammation and degradation of intercellular tight junctions, gut-derived uremic toxins translocate into the bloodstream and exert systemic effects. In this review, we discuss the evidence supporting a role for gut-derived uremic toxins in promoting multiorgan dysfunction via inflammatory, oxidative stress, and apoptosis pathways. End-organ effects include vascular calcification, kidney fibrosis, anemia, impaired immune system, adipocyte dysfunction with insulin resistance, and low turnover bone disease (2018): http://www.clinsci.org/content/132/5/509
Bacterial Dissemination to the Brain in Sepsis. When Sepsis Patients Face Brain Impairment, Is Gut Bacteria to Blame? (2018): https://labblog.uofmhealth.org/lab-report/when-sepsis-patients-face-brain-impairment-gut-bacteria-to-blame - https://www.atsjournals.org/doi/abs/10.1164/rccm.201708-1559OC
The [gut] Microbiome Regulates Pulmonary Responses to Ozone in Mice (2018): https://sci-hub.tw/https://doi.org/10.1165/rcmb.2017-0404OC "[gut] microbiome impacts allergic airway responses, including airway hyperresponsiveness, a characteristic feature of asthma. Here we examined the role of the microbiome in pulmonary responses to a non-allergic asthma trigger, ozone. Our data indicate that the [gut] microbiome contributes to ozone-induced airway hyperresponsiveness, likely via its ability to produce short chain fatty acids."
Alterations in the gut bacterial microbiome in fungal Keratitis (inflammatory disease of the eye) patients (2018): http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0199640 - "Our study demonstrates dysbiosis in the gut bacterial microbiomes of FK patients compared to HC. Further, based on inferred functions, it appears that dysbiosis in the gut of FK subjects is strongly associated with the disease phenotype with decrease in abundance of beneficial bacteria and increase in abundance of pro-inflammatory and pathogenic bacteria"
Alterations in gut bacterial and fungal microbiomes are associated with bacterial Keratitis, an inflammatory disease of the human eye (2018): https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30541945
Mastitis, which affects nearly all lactating mammals including human, is generally thought to be caused by local infection of the mammary glands. Here, using bovine mastitis which is the most costly disease in the dairy industry as a model, we showed that intestinal microbiota alone can lead to mastitis https://doi.org/10.1186/s40168-018-0578-1 Cow-to-mouse fecal transplantations suggest intestinal microbiome as one cause of mastitis (2018).
Human bacterial repertoire of the urinary tract: a potential paradigm shift (review, 2018): https://doi.org/10.1128/JCM.00675-18 "Most pathogenic bacteria are part of the commensal human urinary tract bacteria and their pathogenicity may occur following any imbalance of this microbiota. The restoration of urinary tract health can occur following a fecal transplantation. The potential gut origin of the human bacterial microbiota has to be explored."
Gut Microbiota Dysbiosis is an Independent Risk Factor for Development of Urinary Tract Infections in Kidney Transplantation (2018): https://atcmeetingabstracts.com/abstract/gut-microbiota-dysbiosis-is-an-independent-risk-factor-for-development-of-urinary-tract-infections-in-kidney-transplantation/
Fungus from the intestinal mucosa can affect lung health. Our microbiome can impair our immune system through the harmless fungus Candida albicans. https://eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2019-02/uoc-fft022219.php. Human Anti-fungal Th17 Immunity and Pathology Rely on Cross-Reactivity against Candida albicans (Feb 2019).
Impact of gut colonization with butyrate producing microbiota on respiratory viral infection following allo-HCT (2018): https://doi.org/10.1182/blood-2018-01-828996 - "Patients with higher abundances of butyrate producing bacteria were a five-fold less likely to develop viral LRTI, independent of other factors (adjusted HR=0.22, 95% CI 0.04 - 0.69). Higher representation of butyrate-producing bacteria in the fecal microbiota is associated with increased resistance against respiratory viral infection with LRTI in allo-HCT patients."
Antibiotics Increase Mouse Susceptibility to Dengue, West Nile, and Zika. The authors suggest the antibiotics may have compromised the animals’ immunity by altering their microbiomes. https://www.the-scientist.com/?articles.view/articleNo/52157/title/Antibiotics-Increase-Mouse-Susceptibility-to-Dengue--West-Nile--and-Zika/
Gut microbiome has been implicated in the pathogenesis of uveitis. This short review will summarize the few studies linking gut or oral microbiota to diabetic retinopathy (DR), glaucoma, and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Finally, we will propose the gut-retina axis, related but distinct from the gut-brain axis. (2018): https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-3-319-75402-4_53 | And Gut Fungal Microbiome in Uveitis (2019): https://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2730240
The Microbiome and Tuberculosis: Early Evidence for Cross Talk (review, 2018): https://doi.org/10.1128/mBio.01420-18
Alcohol-associated intestinal dysbiosis impairs pulmonary host defense against Klebsiella pneumoniae (2017): http://journals.plos.org/plospathogens/article?id=10.1371/journal.ppat.1006426
Gut Microbiome Diversity Predicts Blood Infections in Pediatric Patients With Cancer (2018): http://www.ajmc.com/newsroom/gut-microbiome-diversity-associated-with-blood-infections-in-pediatric-patients-with-cancer
Gut microbiota and host defense in critical illness (2017): https://doi.org/10.1097/MCC.0000000000000424
Gastrointestinal carriage is a major reservoir of K. pneumoniae infection in intensive care patients (2017): https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/cix270
Oral antibiotics for systemic infections/symptoms.
The beneficial effects of probiotic administration on wound healing and metabolic status in patients with diabetic foot ulcer: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (2017): https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1002/dmrr.2970
Microbial Symbionts Accelerate Wound Healing via the Neuropeptide Hormone Oxytocin (2013): http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0078898
The Probiotic Mixture VSL#3 Accelerates Gastric Ulcer Healing by Stimulating Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (2013): http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0058671
"wounds tend to heal faster on a germ-free animal than they do in a mouse full of bacteria. But even more intriguingly, mice with a skin wound that are fed a live probiotic appear to heal faster than those fed dead bacteria. This suggests that our old friend the immune system may be responding to the gut bacterial infusion and somehow stimulating wound healing." - Jack Gilbert & Rob Knight, but no citation provided.
Role of gut microbiota in intestinal wound healing and barrier function (2018): https://doi.org/10.1080/21688370.2018.1539595
The microbiome and its relevance in complex wounds (2019): https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30670371
Microbiome Imbalances: An Overlooked Potential Mechanism in Chronic Nonhealing Wounds (2019): https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1534734619832754
Article: Bone and the Microbiome Have a Brittle Relationship. Animal studies and a few small clinical trials show it’s possible to get commensal microbes to protect against bone loss, rather than contribute to it. (July 2019) https://www.the-scientist.com/news-opinion/bone-and-the-microbiome-have-a-brittle-relationship-66116
Commentary, 2019: A Link between the Gut and Bone: Bone Health Impacted by Changes in Gut Microbiota https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajpath.2018.11.004
Review, 2018: Gut Microbiome and Bone: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1297319X18300617
Review, 2018: Bone and the gut microbiome: a new dimension http://jlpm.amegroups.com/article/view/4607
Review, 2017: Gut Microbiota, Immune System, and Bone https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00223-017-0331-y
Review, 2017: From Osteoimmunology to Osteomicrobiology: How the Microbiota and the Immune System Regulate Bone https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00223-017-0321-0
Unintended side effects: Antibiotic disruption of the gut microbiome dysregulates skeletal health (Jan 2019, mice) https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-01-unintended-side-effects-antibiotic-disruption.html - Antibiotic Perturbation of Gut Microbiota Dysregulates Osteoimmune Cross Talk in Postpubertal Skeletal Development https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajpath.2018.10.017
Microbiota regulates bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell lineage differentiation and immunomodulation (2017): https://stemcellres.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13287-017-0670-7
Mechanisms of gut microbiota-mediated bone remodeling (2018): https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5914914/
Linking the Gut Microbiota to Bone Health in Anorexia Nervosa (2018): https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11914-018-0420-5
Gut Microbiota and Bone Health (2017): https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-66653-2_4
Immunology of Gut-Bone Signaling (2017): https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5749247/
Osteomicrobiology: A New Cross-Disciplinary Research Field (2017): https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00223-017-0336-6
Commensal Microbiota Enhance Both Osteoclast and Osteoblast Activities. (2018) http://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/23/7/1517/htm
Bacteria in Children’s Throats Found Strongly Associated with Bone and Joint Infections: https://www.genengnews.com/topics/translational-medicine/bacteria-in-childrens-throats-found-strongly-associated-with-bone-and-joint-infections/ - Association between oropharyngeal carriage of Kingella kingae and osteoarticular infection in young children: a case–control study (2017): https://doi.org/10.1503/cmaj.170127
Probiotics and prebiotics:
Prebiotics, Bone and Mineral Metabolism (2017): https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00223-017-0339-3
Prebiotics and Bone (2017): https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-66653-2_10
Prebiotics, Probiotics, and Synbiotics Affect Mineral Absorption, Bone Mineral Content, and Bone Structure (2007): https://academic.oup.com/jn/article/137/3/838S/4664776
Probiotics (Lactobacillus reuteri 6475) can protect the skeletons of older women. The women who received the powder with active bacteria had lost only half as much bone in the skeleton compared with those who received inactive powders (2018): https://archive.fo/ApXtC
Probiotics (Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG) increase bone volume in healthy mice (2018): https://medicalxpress.com/news/2018-11-probiotics-bone-volume-healthy-mice.html
The Microbial Metabolite Butyrate Stimulates Bone Formation via T Regulatory Cell-Mediated Regulation of WNT10B Expression (2018): http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.immuni.2018.10.013
Some other items also listed in other wiki pages:
"the gastrointestinal microbiome influences every organ system in the body" (Mar 2019): https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nbd.2019.03.014
Researchers Uncover Gut Bacteria's Potential Role In Multiple Sclerosis. "We essentially discovered a remote control by which the gut flora can control what is going on at a distant site in the body, in this case the central nervous system" (2018): https://archive.fo/UyVvi
The gut microbiota and the brain–gut–kidney axis in hypertension and chronic kidney disease (review, 2018): https://www.nature.com/articles/s41581-018-0018-2
Gut microbiota: Neonatal gut microbiota induces lung immunity against pneumonia (2017): https://www.nature.com/articles/nrgastro.2017.34 - IL-22 mediates mucosal host defense against Gram-negative bacterial pneumonia https://www.nature.com/articles/nm1710
Bacterial secretion of histamine within the gut influences immune responses within the lung. (2018): https://doi.org/10.1111/all.13709
Regulation of inflammation by microbiota interactions with the host (2017): http://www.nature.com/ni/journal/v18/n8/full/ni.3780.html "Intestinal microbiota influence host response to infection"
Review, 2017: Human Virome https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0188440918300262 "the findings so far indicate that the regulation of the immune response by viruses and other members of the microbiome can affect the outcome of infections"
A specific human-associated gut microbe, Clostridium orbiscindens, produced metabolite that protects mice from influenza through type I interferon (2017): http://science.sciencemag.org/content/357/6350/498 "Specific components of the enteric microbiota have distal effects on responses to lethal infections through modulation of type I IFN"
The intestinal microbiota regulates extra-intestinal immunity via the common mucosal immune system (2018): https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs40279-017-0846-4 Upper Respiratory Symptoms, Gut Health and Mucosal Immunity in Athletes.
Review, 2018: The role of the microbiota in infectious diseases https://www.nature.com/articles/s41564-018-0278-4
Interplay between viruses and bacterial microbiota in cancer development (2017): http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1044532316300823 "healthy gut microbiota stimulates host immune system resulting in HBV infection clearance; sterilization of gut microbiota with antibiotics reduced the ability of adult mice to clear HBV infection"
"Our current theory is that your gut bacteria determine whether your oral bacteria cause cancer" (2017): https://www.irishtimes.com/news/science/bugging-cancer-gut-bacteria-and-the-big-c-1.3096035
"the gastrointestinal microbiota plays a definitive role in atopy development" (2017): https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5461278/
Associations between infant fungal and bacterial dysbiosis and childhood atopic wheeze in a nonindustrialized setting (2017): http://www.jacionline.org/article/S0091-6749(17)31649-4/fulltext "Our findings provide additional support for considering modulation of the gut microbiome as a primary asthma prevention strategy"
Intestinal Microbiota Disruption Reduces Regulatory T Cells and Increases Respiratory Viral Infection Mortality Through Increased IFNγ Production (2018): https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fimmu.2018.01587/full
Diet plays important role in determining vaginal microbiome (2016): http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fmicb.2016.01936/abstract - exact mechanisms unknown.