Urinary tract & bladder:
Review, 2019: The Urinary Microbiome: Implications in Bladder Cancer Pathogenesis and Therapeutics https://doi.org/10.1016/j.urology.2018.12.034
Review, 2019: The Microbiome and Genitourinary Cancer: A Collaborative Review https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2018.12.043 "There is preliminary evidence to implicate the members of the genitourinary microbiota as causative factors or cofactors in genitourinary malignancy. Clinical trials, such as fecal microbiota transplant to increase the efficacy of immunotherapy, are currently underway"
Review, 2018: Human bacterial repertoire of the urinary tract: a potential paradigm shift: https://doi.org/10.1128/JCM.00675-18 "Most pathogenic bacteria are part of the commensal human urinary tract bacteria and their pathogenicity may occur following any imbalance of this microbiota. The restoration of urinary tract health can occur following a fecal transplantation. The potential gut origin of the human bacterial microbiota has to be explored."
Review, 2018: Urobiome updates: advances in urinary microbiome research https://www.nature.com/articles/s41585-018-0127-5
Scientists and physicians at Loyola University Chicago and Loyola Medicine were the first to publish groundbreaking research that debunked the common belief that urine in healthy women is sterile. Expanding on this finding, a new study published in Nature Communications has found that the bladder not only contains bacteria, but the microbes are similar to those found in the vagina (2018). https://medicalxpress.com/news/2018-06-bacteria-female-bladders.html
Alterations in the Urinary Microbiota Are Associated With Cesarean Delivery (2018): https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6143726/ "beneficial bacteria decreased, and pathogen growth increases after cesarean section, and clinicians should be aware that this might increase the risk of complications"
Bacteriophages Plentiful in Women’s Bladders. In one of the first looks at the urinary virome, researchers find hundreds of viruses, most of which have never been sequenced before. https://www.the-scientist.com/daily-news/bacteriophages-plentiful-in-womens-bladders-30326. Bacteriophages of the Urinary Microbiome (2018): https://jb.asm.org/content/200/7/e00738-17.abstract
Urinary Tract Infections:
Gut Microbiota Dysbiosis is an Independent Risk Factor for Development of Urinary Tract Infections in Kidney Transplantation (2018): https://atcmeetingabstracts.com/abstract/gut-microbiota-dysbiosis-is-an-independent-risk-factor-for-development-of-urinary-tract-infections-in-kidney-transplantation/
Urinary microbes and postoperative urinary tract infection risk in urogynecologic surgical patients (2018): https://doi.org/10.1007/s00192-018-3767-3 "Postoperative UTI risk appears to be associated with preoperative bladder microbiome composition, where an abundance of L. iners appears to protect against postoperative UTI."
Direct Detection of Tissue-Resident Bacteria and Chronic Inflammation in the Bladder Wall of Postmenopausal Women with Recurrent Urinary Tract Infection (April 2019): https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmb.2019.04.008 "These data provide conclusive evidence that bacteria invade the human urothelium and suggest that diverse bacterial species and the adaptive immune response play important roles in RUTI in humans" Article: https://www.utdallas.edu/news/research/recurring-urinary-tract-infections-bacteria-2019/
The incidence of urinary stone disease (USD) has increased four-fold in 50 years. Oxalate, which is degraded exclusively by gut bacteria, is an important constituent in 80% of urinary stones. Results indicate that both antibiotics and diet strongly influence microbial oxalate metabolism. (Jan 2019): https://www.nature.com/articles/s41396-019-0357-4. Loss of function dysbiosis associated with antibiotics and high fat, high sugar diet.