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The Enrichment Process

Ihor Tomilenko edited this page Apr 27, 2017 · 7 revisions

HOME > SNOWPLOW TECHNICAL DOCUMENTATION > Enrichment > The Enrichment Process


Enrichment process parses raw Snowplow events and performs the following:

  1. Extracts data
  2. Validates data against Snowplow Tracker Protocol and JSON schema
  3. Enriches data (adds extra value derived from the tracked/captured data), so called "dimension widening"
  4. Writes enriched data out

Therefore feeding in a raw Snowplow event will produce either the enriched event with additional data (context), modified (enriched) data or a bad record.

JSON schema specifies a JSON-based format to define the structure of JSON data for validation, documentation, and interaction control.

JSON (JavaScript Object Notation) is an open-standard format that uses human-readable text to transmit data objects consisting of attribute–value pairs.

We distinguish 3 types of enrichment:

  • Hardcoded enrichments loading (legacy)
  • Configurable enrichments loading (legacy)
  • Configurable enrichments adding new contexts to the derived_contexts JSON array

Legacy enrichments are those which populate table as opposed to enrichment’s dedicated tables. The hardcoded legacy enrichments normally take place as part of common enrichment process and they precede configurable enrichments.

Configurable enrichments are those controlled with --enrichments option passed to the ETL (Extract, Transform, Load) runner. They often depend on the data produced by the common enrichment process.

ETL stands for Extract, Transform, Load.

During the common enrichment process the data received from collector(s) is mapped according to our Canonical Event Model.

The raw data undergoing "dimension widening" (enrichment) listed as per following:

Hardcoded enrichment

The following fields are populated depending on whether the tracker provided the corresponding value or not.

Raw Parameter Enriched Parameter Purpose
eid event_id The unique event identifier (UUID). Assigned during enrichment if not provided with eid
cv v_collector Collector type/version
tnuid network_userid User ID set by Snowplow using 3rd party cookie. Overwriten with tracker-set tnuid.
ip user_ipaddress Snowplow collectors log IP address as standard. However, you can override the value derived from the collector by populating this value in the tracker.
ua useragent Raw useragent (browser string). Could be overwritten with ua.

The following fields are populated depending on the collector and ETL (Extract, Transform, Load) utilized in the pipeline.

Added Parameter Purpose
v_etl Host ETL version
etl_tstamp Timestamp event began ETL
collector_tstamp Time stamp for the event recorded by the collector

The raw parameter res (if present) representing the screen/monitor resolution and coming in as a combination of width and height (ex. 1280x1024) is broken up into separate entities.

Added Parameter Purpose
dvce_screenwidth Screen / monitor width
dvce_screenheight Screen / monitor height

The url parameter provides the value for page_url in, which represents the current page's URL. The following parts are extracted and populate separate fields as outlined below.

Added Parameter Purpose
page_urlscheme Scheme (protocol), ex. "http"
page_urlhost Host (domain), ex. ""
page_urlport Port if specified, 80 if not
page_urlpath Path to page, ex. "/product/index.html"
page_urlquery Querystring, ex. "id=GTM-DLRG"
page_urlfragment Fragment (anchor), ex. "4-conclusion"

Similarly, page_referrer gets the value from refr, which represents the referer’s URL, and the following parts are extracted and populate separate fields as shown below.

Added Parameter Purpose
refr_urlscheme Scheme (protocol)
refr_urlhost Host (domain)
refr_urlport Port if specified, 80 if not
refr_urlpath Path to page
refr_urlquery Querystring
refr_urlfragment Fragment (anchor)

Additionally the derived timestamp is calculated, derived_tstamp. See this blog post for more details.

Finally, contexts, unstructured events and the relevant configurable enrichments (if enabled) are validated against their corresponding JSON schemas and the array of the derived contexts is assembled.

Configurable enrichment

The configurable enrichment are listed below. Follow the corresponding links to find out more.

The enrichments which write the data into table (legacy enrichments):

The below list contains the enrichment which create a separate context and thus are loaded into their dedicated tables (as opposed to

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