Sharding roadmap

Danny Ryan edited this page Sep 22, 2018 · 26 revisions


Documentation chat Sharding

The roadmap is an active area of research. The outline below is only intended to provide flavour. It is intended for this document to be maintained with ongoing R&D.

Sourced originally from the now retired spec for phase 1 sharding, with modifications for up-to-dateness with the latest spec, which is current shasper v. 2.1 as of 22/08/2018.


Phase 0: PoS beacon chain without shards

  • PoS beacon chain using Casper FFG for finality
  • Validators create an RNG via RANDAO in block proposals
  • Validators organize into proposers and attestation committees from the output of the RNG
  • Validators create crosslinks for stubbed shards

Phase 1: Basic sharding without EVM

  • Blobs (Binary Large Objects) are collated in shards without transactions (which require execution)
  • Proposers submit blobs
  • Notaries
  • For more details, see the spec and implementations.

Phase 2: EVM state transition function

Phase 3: Light client state protocol

  • Executors
  • State-minimized clients. Stateless clients are not ideal as we don't want to offload all storage into secondary markets, rather we can give people a choice to pay storage rent on the blockchain or pay for it in secondary markets.

Phase 4: Cross-shard transactions: see here and more.

Phase 5: Tight coupling with main chain security: here and more.

Phase 6: Super-quadratic or exponential sharding

And a lot more:

For more information see and

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