Skip to content


Switch branches/tags

Name already in use

A tag already exists with the provided branch name. Many Git commands accept both tag and branch names, so creating this branch may cause unexpected behavior. Are you sure you want to create this branch?

Latest commit


Bumps [pypa/gh-action-pypi-publish]( from 1.7.1 to 1.8.1.
- [Release notes](
- [Commits](pypa/gh-action-pypi-publish@v1.7.1...v1.8.1)

- dependency-name: pypa/gh-action-pypi-publish
  dependency-type: direct:production
  update-type: version-update:semver-minor

Signed-off-by: dependabot[bot] <>
Co-authored-by: dependabot[bot] <49699333+dependabot[bot]>

Git stats


Failed to load latest commit information.
Latest commit message
Commit time
February 7, 2023 10:25
March 20, 2023 06:15
March 20, 2023 06:15
March 11, 2023 13:22
February 4, 2021 22:02
March 7, 2023 20:53
October 26, 2021 12:07
March 11, 2023 13:22
March 11, 2023 13:22


PyPI Documentation Status Actions Status Travis Status Appveyor status CircleCI Status Azure Status Cirrus CI Status


Python wheels are great. Building them across Mac, Linux, Windows, on multiple versions of Python, is not.

cibuildwheel is here to help. cibuildwheel runs on your CI server - currently it supports GitHub Actions, Azure Pipelines, Travis CI, AppVeyor, CircleCI, and GitLab CI - and it builds and tests your wheels across all of your platforms.

What does it do?

macOS Intel macOS Apple Silicon Windows 64bit Windows 32bit Windows Arm64 manylinux
musllinux x86_64
musllinux i686
musllinux aarch64
musllinux ppc64le
musllinux s390x
CPythonΒ 3.6 βœ… N/A βœ… βœ… N/A βœ… βœ… βœ… βœ… βœ…
CPythonΒ 3.7 βœ… N/A βœ… βœ… N/A βœ… βœ… βœ… βœ… βœ…
CPythonΒ 3.8 βœ… βœ… βœ… βœ… N/A βœ… βœ… βœ… βœ… βœ…
CPython 3.9 βœ… βœ… βœ… βœ… βœ…Β² βœ…Β³ βœ… βœ… βœ… βœ…
CPythonΒ 3.10 βœ… βœ… βœ… βœ… βœ…Β² βœ… βœ… βœ… βœ… βœ…
CPythonΒ 3.11 βœ… βœ… βœ… βœ… βœ…Β² βœ… βœ… βœ… βœ… βœ…
PyPyΒ 3.7 v7.3 βœ… N/A βœ… N/A N/A βœ…ΒΉ βœ…ΒΉ βœ…ΒΉ N/A N/A
PyPyΒ 3.8 v7.3 βœ… βœ…β΄ βœ… N/A N/A βœ…ΒΉ βœ…ΒΉ βœ…ΒΉ N/A N/A
PyPyΒ 3.9 v7.3 βœ… βœ…β΄ βœ… N/A N/A βœ…ΒΉ βœ…ΒΉ βœ…ΒΉ N/A N/A

ΒΉ PyPy is only supported for manylinux wheels.
Β² Windows arm64 support is experimental.
Β³ Alpine 3.14 and very briefly 3.15's default python3 was not able to load musllinux wheels. This has been fixed; please upgrade the python package if using Alpine from before the fix.
⁴ Cross-compilation not supported with PyPy - to build these wheels you need to run cibuildwheel on an Apple Silicon machine.

  • Builds manylinux, musllinux, macOS 10.9+, and Windows wheels for CPython and PyPy
  • Works on GitHub Actions, Azure Pipelines, Travis CI, AppVeyor, CircleCI, GitLab CI, and Cirrus CI
  • Bundles shared library dependencies on Linux and macOS through auditwheel and delocate
  • Runs your library's tests against the wheel-installed version of your library

See the cibuildwheel 1 documentation if you need to build unsupported versions of Python, such as Python 2.


cibuildwheel runs inside a CI service. Supported platforms depend on which service you're using:

Linux macOS Windows Linux ARM macOS ARM Windows ARM
GitHub Actions βœ… βœ… βœ… βœ…ΒΉ βœ…Β² βœ…β΄
Azure Pipelines βœ… βœ… βœ… βœ…Β² βœ…β΄
Travis CI βœ… βœ… βœ…
AppVeyor βœ… βœ… βœ… βœ…Β² βœ…β΄
CircleCI βœ… βœ… βœ… βœ…Β²
Gitlab CI βœ… βœ… βœ…ΒΉ
Cirrus CI βœ… βœ…Β³ βœ… βœ… βœ…

ΒΉ Requires emulation, distributed separately. Other services may also support Linux ARM through emulation or third-party build hosts, but these are not tested in our CI.
Β² Uses cross-compilation. It is not possible to test arm64 and the arm64 part of a universal2 wheel on this CI platform.
Β³ Uses cross-compilation. Thanks to Rosetta 2 emulation, it is possible to test x86_64 and both parts of a universal2 wheel on this CI platform.
⁴ Uses cross-compilation. It is not possible to test arm64 on this CI platform.

Example setup

To build manylinux, musllinux, macOS, and Windows wheels on GitHub Actions, you could use this .github/workflows/wheels.yml:

name: Build

on: [push, pull_request]

    name: Build wheels on ${{ matrix.os }}
    runs-on: ${{ matrix.os }}
        os: [ubuntu-20.04, windows-2019, macOS-11]

      - uses: actions/checkout@v3

      # Used to host cibuildwheel
      - uses: actions/setup-python@v3

      - name: Install cibuildwheel
        run: python -m pip install cibuildwheel==2.12.1

      - name: Build wheels
        run: python -m cibuildwheel --output-dir wheelhouse
        # to supply options, put them in 'env', like:
        # env:
        #   CIBW_SOME_OPTION: value

      - uses: actions/upload-artifact@v3
          path: ./wheelhouse/*.whl

For more information, including PyPI deployment, and the use of other CI services or the dedicated GitHub Action, check out the documentation and the examples.

How it works

The following diagram summarises the steps that cibuildwheel takes on each platform.

Explore an interactive version of this diagram in the docs.


Option Description
Build selection CIBW_PLATFORM Override the auto-detected target platform
Choose the Python versions to build
CIBW_ARCHS Change the architectures built on your machine by default.
CIBW_PROJECT_REQUIRES_PYTHON Manually set the Python compatibility of your project
CIBW_PRERELEASE_PYTHONS Enable building with pre-release versions of Python if available
Build customization CIBW_BUILD_FRONTEND Set the tool to use to build, either "pip" (default for now) or "build"
CIBW_ENVIRONMENT Set environment variables needed during the build
CIBW_ENVIRONMENT_PASS_LINUX Set environment variables on the host to pass-through to the container during the build.
CIBW_BEFORE_ALL Execute a shell command on the build system before any wheels are built.
CIBW_BEFORE_BUILD Execute a shell command preparing each wheel's build
CIBW_REPAIR_WHEEL_COMMAND Execute a shell command to repair each built wheel
Specify alternative manylinux / musllinux Docker images
CIBW_CONTAINER_ENGINE Specify which container engine to use when building Linux wheels
CIBW_DEPENDENCY_VERSIONS Specify how cibuildwheel controls the versions of the tools it uses
Testing CIBW_TEST_COMMAND Execute a shell command to test each built wheel
CIBW_BEFORE_TEST Execute a shell command before testing each wheel
CIBW_TEST_REQUIRES Install Python dependencies before running the tests
CIBW_TEST_EXTRAS Install your wheel for testing using extras_require
CIBW_TEST_SKIP Skip running tests on some builds
Other CIBW_BUILD_VERBOSITY Increase/decrease the output of pip wheel

These options can be specified in a pyproject.toml file, as well; see configuration.

Working examples

Here are some repos that use cibuildwheel.

Name CI OS Notes
scikit-learn github icon windows icon apple icon linux icon The machine learning library. A complex but clean config using many of cibuildwheel's features to build a large project with Cython and C++ extensions.
NumPy github icon travisci icon windows icon apple icon linux icon The fundamental package for scientific computing with Python.
pytorch-fairseq github icon apple icon linux icon Facebook AI Research Sequence-to-Sequence Toolkit written in Python.
Tornado travisci icon apple icon linux icon Tornado is a Python web framework and asynchronous networking library, originally developed at FriendFeed.
Matplotlib github icon windows icon apple icon linux icon The venerable Matplotlib, a Python library with C++ portions
NCNN github icon windows icon apple icon linux icon ncnn is a high-performance neural network inference framework optimized for the mobile platform
Kivy github icon windows icon apple icon linux icon Open source UI framework written in Python, running on Windows, Linux, macOS, Android and iOS
Prophet github icon windows icon apple icon linux icon Tool for producing high quality forecasts for time series data that has multiple seasonality with linear or non-linear growth.
MyPy github icon apple icon linux icon windows icon The compiled version of MyPy using MyPyC.
pydantic github icon apple icon linux icon windows icon Data validation using Python type hints

ℹ️ That's just a handful, there are many more! Check out the Working Examples page in the docs.

Legal note

Since cibuildwheel repairs the wheel with delocate or auditwheel, it might automatically bundle dynamically linked libraries from the build machine.

It helps ensure that the library can run without any dependencies outside of the pip toolchain.

This is similar to static linking, so it might have some license implications. Check the license for any code you're pulling in to make sure that's allowed.



11 March 2023

  • πŸ› Fix a bug that prevented the use of CIBW_CONFIG_SETTINGS with the 'pip' build backend. (#1430)


16 Jan 2023

  • ✨ Adds support for PyPy arm64 wheels. This means that you can build PyPy wheels for Apple Silicon machines. Cross-compilation is not supported for these wheels, so you'll have to build on an Apple Silicon machine. (#1372)
  • πŸ›  Pinned version updates, including PyPy to v7.3.11 and setuptools to 66.0.0.


24 Dec 2022

  • πŸ› Fix a bug that caused missing wheels on Windows when a test was skipped using CIBW_TEST_SKIP (#1377)
  • πŸ›  Updates CPython 3.11 to 3.11.1 (#1371)
  • πŸ›  Updates PyPy to 7.3.10, except on macOS which remains on 7.3.9 due to a bug on that platform. (#1371)
  • πŸ“š Added a reference to abi3audit to the docs (#1347)


5 Dec 2022

  • ✨ Improves the 'build options' log output that's printed at the start of each run (#1352)
  • ✨ Added a friendly error message to a common misconfiguration of the CIBW_TEST_COMMAND option - not specifying path using the {project} placeholder (#1336)
  • πŸ›  The GitHub Action now uses Powershell on Windows to avoid occasional incompabilities with bash (#1346)


26 October 2022

  • πŸ›  Updates CPython 3.11 to 3.11.0 - final release (#1327)
  • πŸ›  Simplify the default macOS repair command (#1322)
  • πŸ›  Fix the default MACOSX_DEPLOYMENT_TARGET on arm64 (#1312)
  • πŸ›  Hide irrelevant pip warnings on linux (#1311)
  • πŸ› Fix a bug that caused the stdout and stderr of commands in containers to be in the wrong order Previously, stdout could appear after stderr. (#1324)
  • πŸ“š Added a FAQ entry describing how to perform native builds of CPython 3.8 wheels on Apple Silicon. (#1323)
  • πŸ“š Other docs improvements

That's the last few versions.

ℹ️ Want more changelog? Head over to the changelog page in the docs.


For more info on how to contribute to cibuildwheel, see the docs.

Everyone interacting with the cibuildwheel project via codebase, issue tracker, chat rooms, or otherwise is expected to follow the PSF Code of Conduct.



cibuildwheel stands on the shoulders of giants.

Massive props also to-

  • @zfrenchee for help debugging many issues
  • @lelit for some great bug reports and contributions
  • @mayeut for a phenomenal PR patching Python itself for better compatibility!
  • @czaki for being a super-contributor over many PRs and helping out with countless issues!
  • @mattip for his help with adding PyPy support to cibuildwheel

See also

Another very similar tool to consider is matthew-brett/multibuild. multibuild is a shell script toolbox for building a wheel on various platforms. It is used as a basis to build some of the big data science tools, like SciPy.

If you are building Rust wheels, you can get by without some of the tricks required to make GLIBC work via manylinux; this is especially relevant for cross-compiling, which is easy with Rust. See maturin-action for a tool that is optimized for building Rust wheels and cross-compiling.