Iskander (Alex) Sharipov edited this page Oct 23, 2018 · 1 revision

Go 1.11 release introduces AVX-512 support.
This page describes how to use new features as well as some important encoder details.

Terminology

Most terminology comes from Intel Software Developer's manual.
Suffixes originate from Go assembler syntax, which is close to AT&T, which also uses size suffixes.

Some terms are listed to avoid ambiguity (for example, opcode can have different meanings).

Term Description
Operand Same as "instruction argument".
Opcode Name that refers to instruction group. For example, VADDPD is an opcode.
It refers to both VEX and EVEX encoded forms and all operand combinations.
Most Go assembler opcodes for AVX-512 match Intel manual entries, with exceptions for cases
where additional size suffix is used (e.g. VCVTTPD2DQY is VCVTTPD2DQ).
Opcode suffix Suffix that overrides some opcode properties. Listed after "." (dot).
For example, VADDPD.Z has "Z" opcode suffix.
There can be multiple dot-separated opcode suffixes.
Size suffix Suffix that specifies instruction operand size if it can't be inferred from operands alone.
For example, VCVTSS2USIL has "L" size suffix.
Opmask Used for both {k1} notation and to describe instructions that have K registers operands.
Related to masking support in EVEX prefix.
Register block Multi-source operand that encodes register range.
Intel manual uses +n notation for register blocks.
For example, +3 is a register block of 4 registers.
FP Floating-point

New registers

EVEX-enabled instructions can access additional 16 X (128-bit xmm) and Y (256-bit ymm) registers, plus 32 new Z (512-bit zmm) registers in 64-bit mode. 32-bit mode only gets Z0-Z7.

New opmask registers are named K0-K7.
They can be used for both masking and for special opmask instructions (like KADDB).

Masking support

Instructions that support masking can omit K register operand.
In this case, K0 register is implied ("all ones") and merging-masking is performed.
This is effectively "no masking".

K1-K7 registers can be used to override default opmask.
K register should be placed right before destination operand.

Zeroing-masking can be activated with Z opcode suffix.

For example, VADDPD.Z (AX), Z30, K3, Z10 uses zeroing-masking and explicit K register.

  • If Z opcode suffix is removed, it's merging-masking.
  • If K3 operand is removed, K0 operand is implied.

It's compile-time error to use K0 register for {k1} operands (consult manuals for details).

EVEX broadcast/rounding/SAE support

Embedded broadcast, rounding and SAE activated through opcode suffixes.

For reg-reg FP instructions with {er} enabled, rounding opcode suffix can be specified:

  • RU_SAE to round towards +Inf
  • RD_SAE to round towards -Inf
  • RZ_SAE to round towards zero
  • RN_SAE to round towards nearest

To read more about rounding modes, see MXCSR.RC info.

For reg-reg FP instructions with {sae} enabled, exception suppression can be specified with SAE opcode suffix.

For reg-mem instrictons with m32bcst/m64bcst operand, broadcasting can be turned on with BCST opcode suffix.

Zeroing opcode suffix can be combined with any of these.
For example, VMAXPD.SAE.Z Z3, Z2, Z1 uses both Z and SAE opcode suffixes.
It is important to put zeroing opcode suffix last, otherwise it is a compilation error.

Register block (multi-source) operands

Register blocks are specified using register range syntax.

It would be enough to specify just first (low) register, but Go assembler requires explicit range with both ends for readability reasons.

For example, instructions with +3 range can be used like VP4DPWSSD Z25, [Z0-Z3], (AX).
Range [Z0-Z3] reads like "register block of Z0, Z1, Z2, Z3".
Invalid ranges result in compilation error.

AVX1 and AVX2 instructions with EVEX prefix

Previously existed opcodes that can be encoded using EVEX prefix now can access AVX-512 features like wider register file, zeroing/merging masking, etc. For example, VADDPD can now use 512-bit vector registers.

See encoder details for more info.

Supported extensions

Best way to get up-to-date list of supported extensions is to do ls -1 inside test suite directory.

Latest list includes:

aes_avx512f
avx512_4fmaps
avx512_4vnniw
avx512_bitalg
avx512_ifma
avx512_vbmi
avx512_vbmi2
avx512_vnni
avx512_vpopcntdq
avx512bw
avx512cd
avx512dq
avx512er
avx512f
avx512pf
gfni_avx512f
vpclmulqdq_avx512f

128-bit and 256-bit instructions additionally require avx512vl.
That is, if VADDPD is available in avx512f, you can't use X and Y arguments without avx512vl.

Filenames follow GNU as (gas) conventions.
avx512extmap.csv can make naming scheme more apparent.

Instructions with size suffix

Some opcodes do not match Intel manual entries.
This section is provided for search convenience.

Intel opcode Go assembler opcodes
VCVTPD2DQ VCVTPD2DQX, VCVTPD2DQY
VCVTPD2PS VCVTPD2PSX, VCVTPD2PSY
VCVTTPD2DQ VCVTTPD2DQX, VCVTTPD2DQY
VCVTQQ2PS VCVTQQ2PSX, VCVTQQ2PSY
VCVTUQQ2PS VCVTUQQ2PSX, VCVTUQQ2PSY
VCVTPD2UDQ VCVTPD2UDQX, VCVTPD2UDQY
VCVTTPD2UDQ VCVTTPD2UDQX, VCVTTPD2UDQY
VFPCLASSPD VFPCLASSPDX, VFPCLASSPDY, VFPCLASSPDZ
VFPCLASSPS VFPCLASSPSX, VFPCLASSPSY, VFPCLASSPSZ
VCVTSD2SI VCVTSD2SI, VCVTSD2SIQ
VCVTTSD2SI VCVTSD2SI, VCVTSD2SIQ
VCVTTSS2SI VCVTSD2SI, VCVTSD2SIQ
VCVTSS2SI VCVTSD2SI, VCVTSD2SIQ
VCVTSD2USI VCVTSD2USIL, VCVTSD2USIQ
VCVTSS2USI VCVTSS2USIL, VCVTSS2USIQ
VCVTTSD2USI VCVTTSD2USIL, VCVTTSD2USIQ
VCVTTSS2USI VCVTTSS2USIL, VCVTTSS2USIQ
VCVTUSI2SD VCVTUSI2SDL, VCVTUSI2SDQ
VCVTUSI2SS VCVTUSI2SSL, VCVTUSI2SSQ
VCVTSI2SD VCVTSI2SDL, VCVTSI2SDQ
VCVTSI2SS VCVTSI2SSL, VCVTSI2SSQ
ANDN ANDNL, ANDNQ
BEXTR BEXTRL, BEXTRQ
BLSI BLSIL, BLSIQ
BLSMSK BLSMSKL, BLSMSKQ
BLSR BLSRL, BLSRQ
BZHI BZHIL, BZHIQ
MULX MULXL, MULXQ
PDEP PDEPL, PDEPQ
PEXT PEXTL, PEXTQ
RORX RORXL, RORXQ
SARX SARXL, SARXQ
SHLX SHLXL, SHLXQ
SHRX SHRXL, SHRXQ

Encoder details

Bitwise comparison with older encoder may fail for VEX-encoded instructions due to slightly different encoder tables order.

This difference may arise for instructions with both {reg, reg/mem} and {reg/mem, reg} forms for reg-reg case. One of such instructions is VMOVUPS.

This does not affect code behavior, nor makes it bigger/less efficient.
New encoding selection scheme is borrowed from Intel XED.

EVEX encoding is used when any of the following is true:

  • Instruction uses new registers (High 16 X/Y, Z or K registers)
  • Instruction uses EVEX-related opcode suffixes like BCST
  • Instruction uses operands combination that is only available for AVX-512

In all other cases VEX encoding is used.
This means that VEX is used whenever possible, and EVEX whenever required.

Compressed disp8 is applied whenever possible for EVEX-encoded instructions.
This also covers broadcasting disp8 which sometimes has different N multiplier.

Experienced readers can inspect avx_optabs.go to learn about N multipliers for any instruction.

For example, VADDPD has these:

  • N=64 for 512-bit form; N=8 when broadcasting
  • N=32 for 256-bit form; N=8 when broadcasting
  • N=16 for 128-bit form; N=8 when broadcasting

Examples

Exhaustive amount of examples can be found in Go assembler test suite.

Each file provides several examples for every supported instruction form in particular AVX-512 extension.
Every example also includes generated machine code.

Here is adopted "Vectorized Histogram Update Using AVX-512CD" from Intel® Optimization Manual:

for i := 0; i < 512; i++ {
  histo[key[i]] += 1
}
top:
        VMOVUPS     0x40(SP)(DX*4), Z4  //; vmovups     zmm4, [rsp+rdx*4+0x40]
        VPXORD      Z1, Z1, Z1          //; vpxord      zmm1, zmm1, zmm1
        KMOVW       K1, K2              //; kmovw       k2, k1
        VPCONFLICTD Z4, Z2              //; vpconflictd zmm2, zmm4
        VPGATHERDD  (AX)(Z4*4), K2, Z1  //; vpgatherdd  zmm1{k2}, [rax+zmm4*4]
        VPTESTMD    histo<>(SB), Z2, K0 //; vptestmd    k0, zmm2, [rip+0x185c]
        KMOVW       K0, CX              //; kmovw       ecx, k0
        VPADDD      Z0, Z1, Z3          //; vpaddd      zmm3, zmm1, zmm0
        TESTL       CX, CX              //; test        ecx, ecx
        JZ          noConflicts         //; jz          noConflicts
        VMOVUPS     histo<>(SB), Z1     //; vmovups     zmm1, [rip+0x1884]
        VPTESTMD    histo<>(SB), Z2, K0 //; vptestmd    k0, zmm2, [rip+0x18ba]
        VPLZCNTD    Z2, Z5              //; vplzcntd    zmm5, zmm2
        XORB        BX, BX              //; xor         bl, bl
        KMOVW       K0, CX              //; kmovw       ecx, k0
        VPSUBD      Z5, Z1, Z1          //; vpsubd      zmm1, zmm1, zmm5
        VPSUBD      Z5, Z1, Z1          //; vpsubd      zmm1, zmm1, zmm5

resolveConflicts:
        VPBROADCASTD CX, Z5     //; vpbroadcastd zmm5, ecx
        KMOVW CX, K2            //; kmovw        k2, ecx
        VPERMD Z3, Z1, K2, Z3   //; vpermd       zmm3{k2}, zmm1, zmm3
        VPADDD Z0, Z3, K2, Z3   //; vpaddd       zmm3{k2}, zmm3, zmm0
        VPTESTMD Z2, Z5, K2, K0 //; vptestmd     k0{k2}, zmm5, zmm2
        KMOVW K0, SI            //; kmovw        esi, k0
        ANDL SI, CX             //; and          ecx, esi
        JZ noConflicts          //; jz           noConflicts
        ADDB $1, BX             //; add          bl, 0x1
        CMPB BX, $16            //; cmp          bl, 0x10
        JB resolveConflicts     //; jb           resolveConflicts

noConflicts:
        KMOVW       K1, K2             //; kmovw       k2, k1
        VPSCATTERDD Z3, K2, (AX)(Z4*4) //; vpscatterdd [rax+zmm4*4]{k2}, zmm3
        ADDL        $16, DX            //; add         edx, 0x10
        CMPL        DX, $1024          //; cmp         edx, 0x400
        JB          top                //; jb          top
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