MSP Navigation Messages

stronnag edited this page Sep 9, 2018 · 17 revisions

MultiWii NAV Protocol and Types

This document describes a number of values and enumerations for for MultiWii MSP messages. As iNav implements a part of this specification it is documented in the iNav wiki.

This information is provided in the hope it might be useful NO WARRANTY.

Note that all binary values are little endian (MSP standard).

Implementation and versions

This document should match the iNav 1.2 (and later) and Multiwii 2.4 flight controller firmware. The messages described are implemented in mwp (Linux / FreeBSD) and ezgui (Android) ground station applications. mwp and ezgui support both iNav and Multiwii; WinGui is a Windows / Multiwii only mission planner that also supports this message set.

WayPoint / Action Attributes

Each waypoint has a type and takes a number of parameters, as below. These are used in the MSP_WP message. The final column indicated if the message is implemented for iNav 1.2 (and later).

Value Enum P1 P2 P3 Lat Lon Alt iNav
1 WAYPOINT speed [1]
4 RTH [4] Land ✔ [2]
6 JUMP WP# Repeat (-1 = forever)
7 SET HEAD [3] Heading
  1. Leg speed is an iNav extension (for multi-rotors only).
  2. Not used by iNav
  3. Once SET_HEAD is invoked, it remains active until cleared by a P1 value of -1.
  4. If a mission contains multiple RTH stanzas, then for MultiWii, the mission terminates at the first RTH. For iNav, the mission will continue if LAND is not set, and valid waypoints follow.
  5. If the final entry in a mission is a WP, the iNav treats it as POSHOLD_UNLIM.


For safety, if no mission is defined, a single RTH action should be sent.

Enum P1 P2 P3 Lat Lon Alt Flag
RTH 0 0 0 0 0 25m [1] 0xa5
  1. your choice, really.

In general, flag is 0, unless it's the last point in a mission, in which case it is set to 0xa5. When waypoints are uploaded, the values are also returned by the FC, thus enabling the application to verify that the mission has been uploaded correctly.

FC Capabilities (MW only)

Note that 32bit flight controllers (baseflight, cleanflight) use capability == 16 for a different purpose (CAP_CHANNEL_FORWARDING). It is advised to use other messages for checking for capabilities on non-MW platforms.

Capability Value
NAV 16

Messages (Nav related)

MNEMONIC Value Direction (relative to FC)
MSP_WP 118 Out
MSP_SET_WP 209 In (& out)


Special waypoints are 0 and 255. 0 is the RTH (Home) position, 255 is the POSHOLD position (lat, lon, alt).

Name Type Usage
wp_no uchar way point number
action uchar action (wp type / action)
lat int32 decimal degrees latitude * 10,000,000
lon int32 decimal degrees longitude * 10,000,000
altitude int32 altitude (metre) * 100
p1 int16 varies according to action
p2 int16 varies according to action
p3 int16 varies according to action
flag uchar 0xa5 = last, otherwise set to 0

The values for the various parameters are given in the section “WayPoint / Action Attributes” Note that altitude is measured from the "home" location, not absolute above mean sea level.


The following data are returned by a MSP_NAV_STATUS message. The texts are those defined by Wingui; multiwii and iNav support this message. Almost the same data is returned by the iNav LTM NFRAME

Name Type Usage
gps_mode uchar None
nav_state uchar None
RTH Start
RTH Enroute
PosHold infinite
PosHold timed
WP Enroute
Process next
Start Land
Land in Progress
Settling before land
Start descent
Hover above home
Emergency Landing
action uchar (last wp, next wp?)
wp_number uchar (last wp, next wp?)
nav_error uchar Navigation system is working
Next waypoint distance is more than the safety limit, aborting mission
GPS reception is compromised - pausing mission, COPTER IS ADRIFT!
Error while reading next waypoint from memory, aborting mission.
Mission Finished.
Waiting for timed position hold.
Invalid Jump target detected, aborting mission.
Invalid Mission Step Action code detected, aborting mission.
Waiting to reach return to home altitude.
GPS fix lost, mission aborted - COPTER IS ADRIFT!
Copter is disarmed, navigation engine disabled.
Landing is in progress, check attitude if possible.
target_bearing int16 (presumably to the next WP?)


The following data are returned from a MSP_NAV_CONFIG message. Values are from multiwii config.h. Values may also be set by MSP_SET_NAV_CONFIG.

Name Type Usage
flags1 uchar Bitmap of settings from MW config.h
b0 : GPS filtering
b1 : GPS Lead
b2 : Reset Home
b3 : Heading control
b4 : Tail first
b5 : RTH Head
b6 : Slow Nav
b7 : RTH Alt
flags2 uchar Bitmap of settings from MW config.h
b0 : Disable sticks
b1 : Baro takeover
wp_radius uint16 radius around which waypoint is reached (cm)
safe_wp_distance uint16 Maximum permitted first leg of mission (m, assumed?)
nav_max_altitude uint16 Maximum altitude for NAV (m)
nav_speed_max uint16 maximum speed for NAV (cm/sec)
nav_speed_min uint16 minimum speed for NAV (cm/s)
crosstrack_gain uchar MW config.h value*100
nav_bank_max uint16 maximum bank ??? for NAV, MW config.h value*100
rth_altitude uint16 RTH altitude (m)
land_speed uchar Governs the descent speed during landing. 100 ~= 50 cm/sec unknown units
fence uint16 Distance beyond which forces RTH (m)
max_wp_number uchar maximum number of waypoints possible (read only)


If you have a 3DR radio with the MW/MSP specific firmware, the follow data are sent from the radio, unsolicited.

Name Type Usage
rxerrors uint16 Number of RX errors
fixed_errors uint16 Number of fixed errors, if error correction is set
localrssi uchar Local RSSI
remrssi uchar Remote RSSI
txbuf uchar Size of TX buffer
noise uchar Local noise
remnoise uchar Remote noise


The MSP NAV message set is implemented by mwptools (Linux), ezgui (Android) and WinGUI (MS Windows).

XML Mission Files

mwptools, ezgui (and WinGUI) share an XML mission file format. A reverse engineered definition (XSD) can be found in the mwp samples directory.

Clone this wiki locally
You can’t perform that action at this time.
You signed in with another tab or window. Reload to refresh your session. You signed out in another tab or window. Reload to refresh your session.
Press h to open a hovercard with more details.