UntypedLambdaTerms

Pierre Letouzey edited this page Oct 27, 2017 · 16 revisions

This work is inspired by the article De Bruijn Notation as a Nested Datatype by Richard Bird and Ross Paterson. Journal of Functional Programming, 9(1):77-91, January 1999.

In this paper they define the following Haskell datatype:

data Term v = Var v | App (Term v) (Term v) | Lam (Term (Maybe v))

for lambda expression. For example K = λx. λy. x = λ λ 1 would be

Lam (Lam (Just Nothing))

A data type for generalized de Bruijn notation is also given.

data TermE a = VarE a
             | AppE (TermE a) (TermE a)
             | LamE (TermE (Maybe (TermE a)))

Both data types, along with suitable functions, are monads, and have return, bind, and join operations.

A generic recursion function called gfold is created for these data types.

I give several examples of data types to represent untyped lambda calculus terms.

Set Implicit Arguments.
Set Contextual Implicit.
(*This is the same as option, but at the type level*)
Inductive Maybe (A : Type) : Type :=
 | Nothing : Maybe A
 | Just : A -> Maybe A.
(*Maybe is also a monad*)
Definition lift_Maybe A B (h : A -> B) (t : Maybe A) : (Maybe B) :=
  match t with
  | Nothing => Nothing
  | Just a => Just (h a)
  end.

Non-uniform De Bruijn Indices

Properties

  • Is a Monad.
  • Bound and Free Variables work in the same way.
  • Variables can be over any Set.
  • (Term Empty_Set) are closed terms.
  • Even better polymorphic (Term A) are also closed terms and can be instantiated for any set of variables.
  • Join is not definable without impredicative Set.
Module NonUniform_De_Bruijn.
Inductive Term : Type -> Type :=
 | Var : forall A, A -> Term A
 | App : forall A, Term A -> Term A -> Term A
 | Lam : forall A, Term (Maybe A) -> Term A.
(* Examples *)
Definition I A : Term A := Lam (Var Nothing).
Definition K A : Term A := Lam (Lam (Var (Just Nothing))).
Definition S A : Term A :=
Lam (Lam (Lam
(App
 (App (Var (Just (Just Nothing))) (Var Nothing))
 (App (Var (Just Nothing)) (Var Nothing))))).
(* It is to define lift then bind, even though lift could be defined in terms of bind. *)
This code was created by GeorgesGonthier. *)
Fixpoint lift_Term A B (h : A -> B) (t : Term A) {struct t} : Term B :=
  (match t in Term A return (A -> B) -> Term B with
  | Var _ x     => fun h => Var (h x)
  | App _ t1 t2 => fun h => App (lift_Term h t1) (lift_Term h t2)
  | Lam _ t1    => fun h => Lam (lift_Term (lift_Maybe h) t1)
  end) h.
Fixpoint bind_Term A B (t : Term A) {struct t} : (A -> Term B) -> Term B
:=
  match t in Term A return (A -> Term B) -> Term B with
  | Var _ x => fun h => h x
  | App _ t1 t2 => fun h => App (bind_Term t1 h) (bind_Term t2 h)
  | Lam _ t1 => fun h => Lam (bind_Term t1 (fun x =>
    match x with
    | Nothing => Var Nothing
    | Just y => lift_Term (@Just B) (h y)
    end))
  end.
Section Gfold.
(*In principle operations on terms, such as bind, should be
definable using gfold *)
Variable M N : Type -> Type.
Variable v : forall A, M A -> N A.
Variable a : forall A, N A -> N A -> N A.
Variable f : forall A, N (Maybe A) -> N A.
Variable k : forall A, Maybe (M A) -> M (Maybe A).
Fixpoint gfold_lift A (t : Term A) B {struct t} : (A -> M B) -> N B
:=
  match t in Term A return (A -> M B) -> N B with
  | Var _ x     => fun h => v (h x)
  | App _ t1 t2 => fun h => a (gfold_lift t1 h) (gfold_lift t2
h)
  | Lam _ t1    => fun h => f (gfold_lift t1 (fun x => k (lift_Maybe h
x)))
  end.
Definition gfold A t : N A := gfold_lift t (fun x => x).
End Gfold.
(* Join cannot be defined without impredicative set *)
End NonUniform_De_Bruijn.

Non-uniform Generalized de Bruijn Indices

This definition does not work because the occurence of Term inside (Maybe (Term A)) doesn't meet Coq's PositivityRequirement. And even if it did (Term (Maybe (Term A))) would probably require ImpredicativeSet.

Module NonUniform_Generalized_De_Bruijn.
(* THIS DOESN'T WORK
Inductive Term : Type -> Type :=
 | Var : forall A, A -> Term A
 | App : forall A, Term A -> Term A -> Term A
 | Lam : forall A, Term (Maybe (Term A)) -> Term A.
*)
End NonUniform_Generalized_De_Bruijn.

Dependent Generalized de Bruijn Indices

This is also known as the adbmal calculus. See DimitriHendriks.

Properties

  • (Term 0) are closed terms
  • (Term n) are terms with n free varables.
  • Bound and Free variables are handled the same way.
  • Only finite number of free variables, and they must be given numbers.
  • Not a Monad.
Module Dependent_Generalized_De_Bruijn.
Inductive Term : nat -> Set :=
| Var : forall n:nat, Term (S n)
| App : forall n:nat, Term n -> Term n -> Term n
| Lam : forall n:nat, Term (S n) -> Term n
| Succ : forall n:nat, Term n -> Term (S n).
(* Examples *)
Definition I : Term 0 := Lam Var.
Definition K : Term 0 := Lam (Lam (Succ Var)).
Definition S : Term 0 :=
Lam (Lam (Lam
(App
 (App (Succ (Succ Var)) Var)
 (App (Succ Var) Var)))).
End Dependent_Generalized_De_Bruijn.

Dependent Generalized de Bruijn Indices with Free Variables

Properties

  • (Term Empty_Set 0) are closed terms
  • Any Set can make the free variables.
  • Is a Monad I think.
  • I think Join is definable.
  • Bound and free variables are handled different ways.
  • (Term A n) has named free variable and n numbered free variables.
Module Dependent_Generalized_De_Bruijn_Free_Variables.
Inductive Term (A:Set) : nat -> Set :=
| Free : A -> Term A 0
| Var : forall n:nat, Term A (S n)
| App : forall n:nat, Term A n -> Term A n -> Term A n
| Lam : forall n:nat, Term A (S n) -> Term A n
| Succ : forall n:nat, Term A n -> Term A (S n).
Definition I A : Term A 0 := Lam Var.
Definition K A : Term A 0 := Lam (Lam (Succ Var)).
Definition S A : Term A 0 :=
Lam (Lam (Lam
(App
 (App (Succ (Succ Var)) Var)
 (App (Succ Var) Var)))).
End Dependent_Generalized_De_Bruijn_Free_Variables.

De Bruijn Indices

Properties

  • Bound and free variables are handled the same way.
  • Infinite number of free varaibles.
  • Always an infinite number of free varaibles.
  • No type for closed Terms.
  • All free variables are numbered.
  • Not a Monad.
Module De_Bruijn.
Inductive Term : Set :=
| Var : nat -> Term
| App : Term -> Term -> Term
| Lam : Term -> Term.
Definition I : Term  := Lam (Var O).
Definition K : Term := Lam (Lam (Var (S O))).
Definition S : Term :=
Lam (Lam (Lam
(App
 (App (Var (S (S O))) (Var O))
 (App (Var (S O)) (Var O))))).
End De_Bruijn.

De Bruijn Indices with Free Variables

Properties

  • Any Set can make the free variables.
  • Is a Monad I think.
  • I think Join is definable.
  • Bound and free variables are handled different ways.
  • No type for closed Terms.
  • Bad Terms exist with de Bruijn indices that refer to non-existent lambdas.
Module De_Bruijn_Free_Variables.
Inductive Term (A:Set) : Set :=
| Free : A -> Term A
| Var : nat -> Term A
| App : Term A -> Term A -> Term A
| Lam : Term A -> Term A.
Definition I A : Term A := Lam (Var O).
Definition K A : Term A := Lam (Lam (Var (S O))).
Definition S A : Term A :=
Lam (Lam (Lam
(App
 (App (Var (S (S O))) (Var O))
 (App (Var (S O)) (Var O))))).
End De_Bruijn_Free_Variables.
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