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Francis Bond edited this page Apr 25, 2022 · 21 revisions

Zhong [|] is an HPSG/MRS-based DELPH-IN grammar for the Chinese languages, including Mandarin Chinese (simplified and traditional), Cantonese, Min, etc. Currently Simplified Mandarin is the best supported language. This grammar is based off ManGO ( created by Justin Yang (JustinChunleiYang) and Dan Flickinger (

Note on naming

The grammar's name is the first character of 中文 Zhōngwén “Chinese Language”. The grammar's name is frequently written "Zhong [∣]", where the final three characters are an ASCII approximation of the Chinese character 中. In some fonts this looks better, with the middle pipe character extending above and below the brackets. You can approximate this in LaTeX with something like Zhong \texttt{[{\large$|$}]}. The final three characters are not pronounced, and it is also acceptable to call the grammar merely "Zhong".


You can download the current grammar from the Github. You can get the grammar using the following command.

$ git clone


You can try Zhong (for Simplified Mandarin Chinese) here: Delphin-Viz Demo. Select "Zhong (UW)" as the grammar. Currently you have to segment the sentences yourself.





MRS Testsuites

Phenomena-based Testsuites


Canonical Citation
Other Publications
  • Fan, Zhenzhen (2019) Building an HPSG Chinese grammar (Zhong) Doctoral thesis, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.

  • Fan, Zhenzhen, Sanghoun Song, and Francis Bond. (2015) Building Zhong [∣], a Chinese HPSG Meta-Grammar, The 22nd International Conference on Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar.

  • Wang, Wenjie, Sanghoun Song, and Francis Bond. (2015) A Constraint-based Analysis of A-NOT-A Questions in Mandarin Chinese, The 22nd International Conference on Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar.


This grammar was supported in part by:

  • MOE Tier 2 grant That's what you meant: a Rich Representation for Manipulation of Meaning (MOE ARC41/13)

  • MOE Tier 2 grant Grammar Matrix Reloaded: Syntax and Semantics of Affectedness (MOE ARC21/13)